100% Americanism 1919, WikiMedia Commons.

The American Legion prepares to hit a ball labeled “Bolshevism” with a rifle butt labeled “100 per cent Americanism.” He stands above a quote from Theodore Roosevelt Jr.: “Don’t argue with the reds; go to bat with them and go to the bat strong!”

Many white Americans disapproved of the multicultural, consumer-oriented culture of the Roaring 20s and longed for a simpler Anglo-Saxon Protestant past.  IQ tests and eugenics became popular, and the congressional debate on immigration was renewed once again.