2020
First H-Bomb Test on Eniwetok Atoll
September 21, 2020
https://youtu.be/oR3_7A_rQD0 In January 1950, President Harry Truman, despite strong reservations of the Atomic Energy Commission, made the controversial decision to intensify research and production of thermonuclear weapons. On May 12th, 1951, the United States, detonated the first hydrogen bomb on Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands.   The bomb was based on the combination of a nuclei of heavy hydrogen (deuterium) and the process of fission. Operation Greenhouse was designed to reduce the size, weight and amount of fissile material necessary for nuclear weapons, while increasing the destructive power.
Rosenbergs sentenced to death for espionage
September 17, 2020
https://youtu.be/5iUyF3YttgA Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were charged with conspiracy to commit espionage and brought to trial on March 6, 1951; On March 29 they were found guilty, and on April 5,1951 the couple was sentenced to death. https://youtu.be/7lfJC5bx3Us Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed by electric chair at Sing Sing Prison on June 19, 1953. Both proclaimed their innocence up to the time of their deaths.
UNIVAC – First Commercial Computer Built
September 14, 2020
https://youtu.be/kignGE77l_I The UNIVAC I was the first American computer designed to provide fast execution of relatively simple arithmetic and data transport operations for commercial purposes, as opposed to the complex numerical calculations required of scientific computers.By adding offline card processing equipment, the UNIVAC was designed to compete with existing punch-card machines. To promote sales, the Remington Rand Corporation joined with CBS to have UNIVAC I predict the result of the 1952 Presidential election. UNIVAC I accurately predicted an Eisenhower victory over Adlai Stevenson, the candidate pollsters favored.  UNIVAC I used about 5,000 vacuum tubes, weighed 16,686 pounds, 7 consumed 125 kW, and could perform about 1,905 operations per second running on a 2.25 MHz clock.  Source: Wikipedia
Korean War Draft Age Lowered From 21 to 18 Years
September 10, 2020
https://youtu.be/vEji28QamlM With WWII already begun in Europe and Asia, Congress narrowly passed the first peacetime draft in U.S. history. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Selective Training and Service Act into law in September 1940. All males of ages 21 to 36 were required to register for the draft. The Act expired in March 1947, but President Harry S. Truman pushed for an extension of the draft and Congress reenacted the Selective Service Act in June 1948. Experiencing an overload of volunteers, the Selective Service System implemented a “draft holiday” in early 1949 with expiration due in June 1950. With the onset of the Korean war in June 1950, Congress extended the act for another year. This time all males aged 18-26 were required to register for the draft. The Act was reauthorized in 1951 as the Universal Military Training and Service Act. During the Korean War > 1.5 million men were inducted into the armed services. An additional 1.5 million were inducted between 1954 and 1961. Source: Encyclopedia Britannica
Chinese PLA and UN Forces Ping-Pong Back & Forth
September 3, 2020
https://youtu.be/ygEm0sIZF8M May 16, 1951 - Chinese Communist Forces launch a second offensive in Korea and gain up to 20 miles of territory. May 21, 1951 - The U.S. Eighth Army counterattacks to drive the Communist Chinese and North Koreans out of South Korea. Mid-June, 1951 - UN forces advance approximately 2–6 miles north of the 38th Parallel. With the start of ceasefire negotiations underway, the UN advance stops on the Kansas-Wyoming Line. Despite some limited attacks, this remains the frontline through 2 more years of stalemate. July 13, 1951 - Truce talks between the UN and the communists begin at Kaesŏng. However, fighting continues for two more years.  "The defeat of the Communist advance into South Korea and the restoration of a firm defensive line roughly along the 38th Parallel decided the outcome of the war and guaranteed the future of South Korea. U.S. and UN resolve in the subsequent summer fighting brought the Chinese and North Koreans to the peace table. The American response to the shock of the Chinese intervention evolved into a firm determination to limit the objectives of the war to the continued existence of South Korea." Source: U.S. army Center of Military History
The Catcher in the Rye – J.D. Salinger
August 31, 2020
https://youtu.be/aVEwfJ4s8kc There is no movie - This is a School project by Mickofferson The Catcher in the Rye written by the enigmatic recluse J.D. Salinger was first published in serial form in the New Yorker magazine in 1945–1946, then as a novel in 1951. J.D. Salinger - Wikipedia Narrated from the point of view of the young Holden Caulfield, the novel was originally intended for adults, but is often read by adolescents for its themes of angst and alienation, and as a critique on superficiality in society. Translated widely, the novel has sold more than 65 million copies worldwide. Source: Wikipedia
President Truman Relieves Gen MacArthur of Command
August 27, 2020
https://youtu.be/U7Siq4eFS-8 With the UN military situation in Korea improving in early 1951, President Harry S. Truman was contemplating offering a peace negotiation to Communist China. However, in late March 1951 General Douglas MacArthur independently challenged China to admit defeat, thereby simultaneously challenging both China and President Truman. Truman's proposed peace negotiation announcement was then shelved. In April 1951 the Republican leader in the House of Representatives read aloud a letter from MacArthur that was critical of Truman's Europe-first policy and limited-war strategy. The letter concluded with: It seems strangely difficult for some to realize that here in Asia is where the communist conspirators have elected to make their play for global conquest, and that we have joined the issue thus raised on the battlefield; that here we fight Europe's war with arms while the diplomats there still fight it with words; that if we lose the war to communism in Asia the fall of Europe is inevitable, win it and Europe most probably would avoid war and yet preserve freedom. As you pointed out, we must win. There is no substitute for victory. In April 1951 President Truman relieved General MacArthur of his command. In 1956 President Truman wrote: If there is one basic element in our Constitution, it is civilian control of the military. Policies are to be made by the elected political officials, not by generals or admirals. Yet time and again General MacArthur had shown that he was unwilling to accept the policies of the administration. By his repeated public statements he was not only confusing our allies as to the true course of our policies but, in fact, was also setting his policy against the President's... If I allowed him to defy the civil authorities in this manner, I myself would be violating my oath to uphold and defend the Constitution. General Source: Wikipedia https://youtu.be/CBAcq_hXtnc
Literature During the Korean War
August 20, 2020
Together with the Foot Soldiers 步兵과 더부러  Yu Ch’ihwan (1951) The pen we carry to fight should, like grenades, field artillery, flame throwers and the atomic bomb become a new weapon Ch’oe Sangdŏk (1901-1971) "After WWII Korean writers searched for a new function for literature which would undo culture from the remnants of colonization, and simultaneously strengthen the nation. Some writers argued that socialist realist literature would suit the needs of postcolonial Korea, while others started to propagate their vision of a so-called “pure literature” (sunsu munhak). In tandem with the political circumstances on the Korean peninsula, these two aesthetic doctrines would become the most dominant, and would eventually become directly linked to one of the two hegemonic political ideologies: Communism and Democracy..." Source: Wit, Jerôme de. Writing under wartime conditions : North and South Korean writers during the Korean war (1950-1953). For South Korean writers during the Korean War, nationalism and determining who represented the moral highground of the Korean nation formed an important battlefield. In their stories South Korean writers asserted that North Korean politicians and army officers had given up all rights to be part of the Korean nation by adhering to their “mistaken” (Communist) ideology. Meanwhile the common North Korean citizen (including the citizen soldier) was a victim of this group in power and was treated like a slave. Source: 1950s | Korean Literature Blog   After the partition between north and south, North Korea's subsequent literary tradition was shaped and controlled by the State. The "Guidelines for Juche Literature", published by the official Choson Writers' Alliance, emphasized that literature must extoll the country's leader. Only members of the Writers' Alliance are authorized to have their works published. Reading is a popular pastime in North Korea, where literacy and books enjoy a high cultural standing, elevated by the regime's efforts to disseminate propaganda as texts. Because of this, writers are held in high prestige. Source: Wikipedia North Korean literature is virtually nonexistent in English translation outside of North Korea. In contrast, a substantial body of South Korean literature has been translated. Source: B. Fulton Wikipedia  WRITERS North Korea South Korea
Chinese Ground Offensive Spring 1951
August 17, 2020
https://youtu.be/zswdDufm8b0 Excellent summary of Combat Activities In Korea, 20 April Through 20 May 1951 In April 1951 the Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army (PVA) launched the first phase of its Spring Offensive with three field armies totaling 700,000 men against the U.S. I Corps and US IX Corps. In May 1951, the PVA and Korean People's Army(KPA) launched the second phase of their Spring Offensive against the Republic of Korea (ROK) forces and US X Corps in the east. Although initially successful, PVA and KPA advances were halted by late May. At the end of May 1951, US Eighth Army counterattacked the overextended, exhausted PVA/KPA forces, inflicting heavy losses. Main source: Chinese Spring Offensive 
Chinese Spring Offensive Air War
August 13, 2020
https://youtu.be/HNgrTVzYDHA The Air Plan After their New Years' offensive, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army high command decided to use the People's Air Force in support of future ground operations. In preparation for this move, an air-ground training conference was held in Mukden.  By March 1951, in addition to more MIG-15s, the Chinese had acquired enough Ilyushin (IL-10) ground-attack planes to equip two air regiments. MIG-15 - Wikimedia Ilyushin (IL-10) ground-attack plane - Flickr.com Fearing UN retaliation on Chinese bases, the People's Air Force was forbidden to fly attack missions out of Manchuria against UN troops and installations. Airfields for support aircraft were therefore developed in North Korea. The Chinese air commander Liu Ya-lou planned to: establish air superiority over northwestern Korea repair and improve air facilities in the protected region restore forward airfields near the 38th parallel - Since the MIG-15s and IL-10s were short-range aircraft After the U.S. the Fifth Air Force demolished its forward fields at Kimpo and Suwon during the New Year's offensive and redeployed all jet fighters to Japan, U.S. jets' range was too short to maintain air superiority in the far northwest. The Chinese People's Air Force then assumed control of the air between the Yalu and Ch'ongch'on rivers. By the first week of March 1951, the Suwon airfield was sufficiently repaired to allow jets to stage through it and reenter MIG Alley. By the end of the month, the U.S. Fifth Air Force was back in even competition with the Chinese air force.  Wikipedia Main source: Offensive1951
Operation Ripper – Fourth Battle of Seoul
August 6, 2020
https://youtu.be/FV-uy5rXDCk With the UN Operation Ripper in March 1951, Seoul changed hands for the 4th time. Following the 8-day, late February offensive of Operation Killer that pushed PVA/KPA forces north of the Han River, Operation Ripper was intended to destroy the Chinese People's Volunteer Army and the Korean People's Army forces around Seoul and the towns of Hongch'on and Chuncheon. Conceived by General Matthew Ridgway, Operation Ripper aimed to bring UN troops to the 38th Parallel. Courtesy of the United States Military Academy Department of History
UN Forces Launch Major Counter-Offensive
July 30, 2020
https://youtu.be/hnlFxo3vUGA   On January 25, 1950, after a series of cautious reconnaissance advances, the U.S. 8th Army, under the command of Gen Matthew Ridgway, initiated Operation Thunderbolt, a major attack against Chinese and North Korean forces near the Han River.   The goal of Operation Thunderbolt was to inflict maximum punishment on the enemy while keeping major UN units intact.  GEN Ridgway stressed "good footwork combined with firepower.” 8th Army forces did not advance beyond carefully planned  “phase lines” until every assigned unit reached it.  After Operation Thunderbolt secured the southern bank of the Han River, the Chinese and North Korean forces moved their operations further east. In an attempt to regain the initiative, the Chinese counterattacked at the Battle of Hoengsong on February 11, briefly stopping US X Corps' advance. However, without rest and recuperation, the new Communist offensive faded at the Battle of Chipyong-ni on February 15. On February 21, 1950, with Communist forces incapable of further offensive operations, GEN Ridgway ordered Operation Killer to eliminate the remainder of Chinese and North Korean forces in the area. https://youtu.be/FShoMIgkuCg
Korean War Movies 1951
July 27, 2020
American Korean War films released in 1951 The Steel Helmet Fixed Bayonets! Korea Patrol I Want You Tokyo File 212 Submarine Command The Korean War was the first armed, global conflict in the Cold War between Democratic and Communist states. >5 million American troops fought in the war with >33,000 combat deaths and 92,000 injuries. In 1953, the war ended in an uneasy truce along the 38th parallel on the Korean Peninsula. Wikimedia Commons Nevertheless, aside from M*A*S*H and a few books and films, the Korean War remains somehow "forgotten" in American culture when compared with literature and films about WWII, the war in Vietnam, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. ~ USATODAY
Seoul City Sue – North Korean Propagandist
July 20, 2020
Anna Wallis Suh (1900–1969), nicknamed "Seoul City Sue," was a Methodist missionary, educator, and North Korean propaganda radio announcer broadcasting to United States forces during the Korean War. After joining the Shanghai American School (SAS) in 1938, Suh married fellow staff member Sŏ Kyu Ch’ŏl, thus losing her United States citizenship.  Late in WWII she was interned by the Japanese near Shanghai. After release, she resumed work at SAS for a year, before returning to Korea to teach school with her husband in 1946. In 1949 Suh was fired from the U.S. Legation school in Seoul due to suspicions regarding her husband's left-wing political activities. The Suhs remained in Seoul during the North Korean Army's invasion of South Korea in June 1950. In July 1950 Anna Wallis Suh began announcing an English language program for North Korean "Radio Seoul." After the Incheon landing in September 1950, the Suhs were evacuated north as a part of the general withdrawal of North Korean forces. Suh then continued her broadcasts on Radio Pyongyang. The Suhs also participated in the political indoctrination of US POWs at a camp near Pyongyang in February 1951. Wikipedia After the war, Suh was put in charge of English language publications for the Korean Central News Agency. In 1972 Charles Jenkins, an American deserter reported that Anna Suh had been shot as a South Korean double agent in 1969.
U.S. Bombing of Pyongyang
July 16, 2020
https://youtu.be/5v4_kNVCgXc The first intentional U.S. air raid on civilian populations in North Korea occurred with the bombing of the capital city Pyongyang in January 1951. (YouTube video is from 1952). Throughout the remainder of the war, a sustained U.S. air campaign targeted Pyongyang and other major cities of North Korea.  After running low on urban targets, U.S. bombers destroyed hydroelectric and irrigation dams in the later stages of the war, flooding farmland and destroying crops.                                  Source: Bombing of Pyongyang - Wikipedia   Wikipedia Wikipedia The U.S. dropped more bombs on North Korea than on Japanese targets in the entire Pacific theater during WWII. Whole cities were destroyed, with many thousands of innocent civilians killed and many more left homeless and hungry. Carpet bombing during the Korean War included 32,000 tons of napalm, often deliberately targeting civilians as well as military targets. Wikimedia Commons Gen. Curtis E. LeMay. (U.S. Air Force photo) "Over a period of three years or so, we killed off — what — 20 percent of the population," Air Force Gen. Curtis LeMay, head of the Strategic Air Command during the Korean War, told the Office of Air Force History in 1984. Source: Vox
U.S. , Chinese and North Korean Winter Uniforms 
July 13, 2020
This Chinese soldier fighting in Korea 1950/53 is equipped with a Chinese Type 88 Hangyang rifle and wears a fur cap, the rice bag on his right side and bandoliers over his shoulders. Note also the cheap footwear and old-style leg wrappings. North Korean infantryman with a Soviet 7.62mm PPSh sub-machine gun. He is wearing a winter uniform of quilted jacket, over trousers and a cap with ear flaps. North Korean equipment was basic but functional and showed a close link to Soviet gear which was better quality than Chinese.
Korean War Comic Books
July 9, 2020
Following the sudden onset of hostilities in June 1950, the Korean War became the focus of a number of comic books.Source: Advancing in another Direction Beginning in 1951, E-C Comic's Two-Fisted Tales followed the United States into the Korean war.Two-Fisted Tales A few examples of Korean War Comic books