2022
1958 Top News and Music
August 1, 2022
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AXIHoO76xpM https://youtu.be/AUnsMuxjIlc
Fidel Castro’s Forces Triumphant
July 28, 2022
Fidel and Raul Castro formed an underground movement in the early 1950s to overthrow the brutal and corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista, under whose rule Cuba had become a haven for organized crime. After an unsuccessful rising against Batista in 1953 the Castro brothers were jailed for 15 years, but were released after two years and exiled to Mexico where they met the charismatic Argentinian doctor Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara. Returning to Cuba with Guevara and a small band of followers in 1956, they joined with mountain bandits. From their stronghold in Sierra Maestra they smuggled arms, mounted guerrilla raids, blew up bridges, kidnapped Americans and cut off the ports from which sugar was exported. Batista finally fled on New Year’s Eve 1958, and Fidel Castro, at the age of 30, entered Havana in triumph on 8 January 1959. Source: history.blog.gov. uk
Pope John XXIII Crowned
July 25, 2022
Pope John XXIII  was head of the Catholic Church from October 1958 until his death in 1963. Born in 1881 as  Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, he was one of thirteen children in a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy. Pope John had a major impact on the Catholic Church, opening it up to dramatic unexpected changes including: - prohibiting bishops from interfering with local elections - "Ostpolitik" engaged in dialogue with the communist countries of Eastern Europe - naming the first cardinals from Africa, Japan, and the Philippines - promoting ecumenical movements in cooperation with other Christian faiths. Source: Wikipedia
Kingston Trio – Tom Dooley 
July 21, 2022
The Kingston Trio, an American folk and pop group from San Fancisco helped launch the folk music revival of the late 1950s. The original lineup of Dave Guard, Bob Shane, and Nick Reynolds rose to international popularity fueled by an unprecedented sale of LP records.  Source: Wikipedia
Boris Pasternak Forced to Decline Nobel Prize
July 18, 2022
Growing up in Moscow, the son of an artist and concert pianist, Boris Pasternak anandoned a career as a composer to study philosophy in Germany. On returning to Moscow, he became an author and was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize for literature. His novel Doctor Zhivago was banned by Soviet authorities and he was forced to decline the Nobel Prize. Source: Nobelprize.org Pasternak's novel Doctor Zhivago  was made into a 1965 film. https://youtu.be/CGGr21PilKY
Pope Pius XII Dies
July 14, 2022
Pope Pius XII (born in 1876 as Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli) died on October 9, 1958 after a long, tumultuous, and controversial pontificate (1939–58). During his reign, Pius XII faced the ravages of World War II, the abuses of the Nazi, fascist, and Soviet regimes, the horror of the Holocaust, the challenge of postwar reconstruction, and the threat of communism and the Cold War. Deemed an ascetic and “saint of God” by his admirers, Pius was criticized by others for his alleged public silence in the face of genocide and his apparently contradictory policies of impartiality during World War II coupled with fervent anticommunism during the postwar period. Source: Brittanica.com
Little Rock Voters Close Public Schools 
July 11, 2022
In September 1958, Gov. Orval Faubus closed all Little Rock, Arkansas public high schools for one year rather than allow integration to continue, leaving 3,665 black and white students without access to public education. Source: Library of Congress.
Martin Luther King Jr. Stabbed
July 7, 2022
https://youtu.be/bhm5tE5e4FY In September 1958  Martin Luther King Jr. was autographing copies of his memoir Stride Toward Freedom (about the Montgomery bus strike) in a Harlem department store when a 42-year-old African American woman plunged a seven-inch penknife into his chest. With the knife still lodged in his sternum, King was carried in his chair to an ambulance and rushed to Harlem Hospital where he was successfully treated. The woman, Izola Ware Curry, was later diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia.  Source: history,com
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
June 30, 2022
https://youtu.be/lS2DPx-4sbI 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). The PRC shelled the islands of Kinmen(Quemoy) and the Matsu Islands along the east coast of mainland China in the Taiwan Strait to "liberate" Taiwan and probe the extent of US defense of Taiwan's territory. A naval battle also took place around Dongding Island when the ROC Navy repelled an attempted amphibious landing by the PRC Navy. Source: Wikipedia
USS Nautilus Submarine Travels Beneath North Pole
June 27, 2022
https://youtu.be/vjK126hN4qc USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole in August 1958. The nuclear submarine shared the name of Captain Nemo's submarine in Jules Verne's classic 1870 science fiction novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea and the USS Nautilus (SS-168) that served with distinction in World War II. Source: Wikipedia
Loving v. Virginia Landmark Court Case
June 23, 2022
Loving v. Virginia was a 1958 Supreme Court case that struck down state laws banning interracial marriage in the United States. With the help of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Richard and Mildred Loving, a white man and Black woman whose marriage was deemed illegal according to Virginia state law, appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that “anti-miscegenation” statutes were unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment. Source: history.com
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration
June 20, 2022
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following closely after the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik, the act abolished the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and transferred its activities and resources to NASA. The Act also created a Civilian-Military Liaison Committee, for the purpose of coordinating civilian and military space applications, and keeping NASA and the Department of Defense "fully and currently informed" of each other's space activities. Source: Wikipedia
US Marines Sent To Lebanon
June 16, 2022
https://youtu.be/0qFbBgDFzBM In July 1958 President Eisenhower ordered 5,000 US Marines to Lebanon, at the request of that country’s president, to face a perceived threat by Muslim rebels and help end a short-lived civil war. Eisenhower justified his decision to send troops to the region on the basis that it was the "birthplace of three great religions," as well as having "two-thirds of the presently known oil deposits." The American intervention lasted for three months until President Camille Chamoun completed his term as president of Lebanon. American and Lebanese government forces successfully occupied the Port of Beirut and Beirut International Airport. With the crisis over, the United States withdrew. Source: Wikipedia
Cuban Rebels Capture US Sailors & Marines
June 13, 2022
In June 1958, Cuban rebel forces captured 29 Sailors and Marines as they returned to Guantamano from leave in Cuba. The hostages were detained in the hills for 22 days, then released . Source: Naval Technology
Execution of Hungarian Communist Leader 
June 9, 2022
Imre Nagy served as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic from 1953 to 1955. In 1956 Nagy. a committed communist, became leader of the Hungarian Revolution against the Soviet-backed government. Sentenced to death, Nagy was executed in June 1958. Source: Wikipedia
Nuclear Waste in Marshall Islands
June 6, 2022
The Runit Dome (aka Cactus Dome) is a 377 foot X 18 inch dome of radioactive debris, entombed in concrete, that stems from nuclear tests conducted in the Enewetak Atoll of the Marshall Islands by the United States between 1946 and 1958. From 1977 to 1980, loose waste and topsoil debris scraped off from six different islands in the Enewetak Atoll was transported here, mixed with concrete, and stored in the nuclear blast crater of the May 1958 Cactus test. 
De Gaulle Returns to Power
June 2, 2022
In May 1958  during the turmoil of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962) Charles de Gaulle returned to power after a twelve-year absence. De Gaulle's newly formed cabinet was approved by the National Assembly by 329 votes against 224, while he was granted the power to govern by ordinances for a six-month period as well as the task to draft a new Constitution. A decisive shift in the balance of power in French civil-military relations in 1958 with its threat of force was the main immediate factor in the return of de Gaulle to power in France. Source: Wikipedia
Memorial To Americans St, Paul’s London
May 30, 2022
Source: Wikipedia
Fidel Castro Behind Rebel Lines in Cuba
May 26, 2022
Believing support for the revolution was waning, Cuba's president Fulgencio Batista called for a major military offensive against Fidel Castro's rebels in the Sierra Maestra mountains in the summer of 1958. But the rebels turned back the offensive, forcing the army to withdraw. With international media giving favorable press coverage to the revolutionaries, the United States began to withdraw support for Batista’s government, which it had previously backed due to the dictator’s anti-communist stance. Source: History.com
U.S. plan to explore space near the moon
May 23, 2022
https://youtu.be/38pfWCaSZ9Y During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union began to build powerful new rockets—which they would eventually use to send humans into space and, ultimately, to the moon. In 1958 NASA launched Project Mercury with three specific goals: launch an American into orbit around Earthinvestigate the human body’s ability to tolerate spaceflightbring both the spacecraft and astronaut home safety the unstated goal: Accomplish all of this before the Soviets Source: NASA
The Bridge on the River Kwai
May 19, 2022
https://youtu.be/RlC7XBayj0s At the 30th Academy Awards in 1958, The Bridge on the River Kwai won seven awards, including best picture of 1957. Its director, David Lean, and star Alec Guinness also received Oscars.  The Bridge on the River Kwai was based on the 1952 novel written by Pierre Boulle. Although the film depicted the construction of the Burma Railway in 1942–1943, the plot and characters of the novel and screenplay are almost entirely fictional. The cast included Alec Guinness, William Holden, Jack Hawkins, and Sessue Hayakawa. Source: Wikipedia
Elvis Joins the US Army
May 16, 2022
Elvis Aron Presley entered the United States Army at Memphis, Tennessee in March 1958. During his active military career Presley served as a member of two different armor battalions. At the 2d Medium Tank Battalion, 37th Armor in Fort Hood, Texas he completed basic and advanced military training. His overseas service was with the 1st Medium Tank Battalion, 32d Armor in Friedberg Germany. He left active duty at Fort Dix, New Jersey, in March 1960, and received his discharge from the Army Reserve in March 1964. Source: US Army Center of Military History
Venezuelan Protesters Attack Nixon Cavalcade
May 12, 2022
In April-May1958, on a goodwill trip to Latin America, Vice President Richard Nixon engaged in angry debates with student groups in Peru and Uruguay. Then, in Caracas, Venezuela, a large crowd pelted his car, smashing the windows. Nixon escaped from the crowd and left Venezuela ahead of schedule. Source: History.com
Van Cliburn wins Moscow Competition
May 9, 2022
In April 1958, at the height of the Cold War, the Texan pianist, Van Cliburn won the International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow. Because the contest was intended to demonstrate Soviet cultural superiority, the judges asked permission of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev to give first prize to an American—“Is he the best?” Khrushchev asked. “Then give him the prize!” Source: cliburn.org
USSR Declares Atomic Testing Halt 
May 5, 2022
https://youtu.be/QrNN5ZhsC1I   In March 1958 the Soviet Union declared it was halting tests of atomic and hydrogen bombs. It called on the other nuclear powers, the United States and Britain, to do the same. Moscow warned that it would resume testing if their example was ignored. In October 1958 the United States, Britain and the USSR began negotiations for a more permanent ban on nuclear testing. The  Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, signed in Moscow in August 1963 : prohibited nuclear weapons tests or other nuclear explosions under water, in the atmosphere, or in outer space allowed underground nuclear tests as long as no radioactive debris falls outside the boundaries of the nation conducting the test pledged signatories to work towards complete disarmament, an end to the armaments race, and an end to the contamination of the environment by radioactive substances. In 1996, the United Nations General Assembly Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, prohibited “any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.” Although President Bill Clinton signed the treaty along with more than 180 nations, the U.S. Senate rejected the treaty in 1999. Those who objected argued that a ban on testing would damage the safety and reliability of America’s existing nuclear arsenal, and claimed it would be impossible to guarantee treaty compliance by all countries.  China, India, Iran, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan and the United States, have not ratified the treaty.   Main Sources: JFK Library and History.com 
First Overland Crossing of Antarctica
May 2, 2022
In March 1958 the British geologist/explorer Vivian Fuchs led a 99-day multinational expedition (United Kingdom, New Zealand, United States, Australia and South Africa) on the first overland crossing of Antarctica by way of the South Pole. Source: Wikipedia
Unarmed Nuclear Bomb Dropped on South Carolina
April 28, 2022
https://youtu.be/u1s46O9FK-E In March 1958 a B-47 pilot accidentally grabbed the bomb bay door lever and released an unarmed nuclear bomb at 15,000 feet over the suburbs of Florence, South Carolina. The bomb's high explosives exploded on impact, wrecking a house and injuring several people on the ground. The extent of radioactive contamination was never revealed. Source: Wikipedia
Teenage Fashion
April 25, 2022
https://youtu.be/zlJFOZMEIGI In the 1950s many teenage girls wore circle skirts with fitted blouses, wide belts, bobby socks and flat shoes emphasizing the hourglass shape... ETSY Casual girl's wear 1950s Pinterest Some teen boys were inspired by the blue jeans and black leather jackets of Marlon Brando and James Dean. James Dean ~ Rebel Without a Cause Marlon Brando ~ The Wild One Pinterest Other boys wore preppy (some said "collegiate") sweaters over slim pants and button-down shirts Pinterest Main source: TIMELESS AND FLATTERING TRENDS FROM 50S TEENAGE FASHION
Syria and Egypt form United Arab Republic
April 21, 2022
https://youtu.be/0KSXZNpyTfg In February 1958 Syria and Egypt formed the United Arab Republic. Although initially a political union between Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria, Syria seceded from the union in 1961 after a Syrian coup d'état. Egypt continued to be known officially as the United Arab Republic until 1971. Source: Wikipedia
US Launches Explorer 1
April 18, 2022
https://youtu.be/NfMIrKkzRx8 In January 1958 the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency successfully launched a satellite using a Jupiter C rocket developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun. The satellite carried a cosmic ray detector designed to measure the radiation environment in Earth's orbit. The radiation belts discovered by Explorer 1 subsequently were known as the Van Allen Belts. Making one orbit every 114.8 minutes, Explorer 1 revolved around Earth in a looping orbit from 354 kilometers (220 miles) to Earth to 2,515 kilometers (1,563 miles). Explorer 1 made its final transmission in May 1958. Explorer1 entered Earth's atmosphere and burned up on March 31, 1970, after more than 58,000 orbits. Source: NASA
John Birch Society
April 14, 2022
https://youtu.be/mide9z5q_3c In 1958 the John Birch Society, an American ultraconservative political advocacy group was founded by retired candy manufacturer Robert Welch to promote anti-communism and social conservatism. At its height, the John Birch Society claimed 100,000 members.  Welch published the Society's monthly magazine American Opinion and weekly The Review of the News. He also wrote books entitled The Road to Salesmanship, May God Forgive Us, The Politician (Eisenhower) and The Life of John Birch. An adherent of conspiracy theories, Welch believed many individuals and organizations were part of an international communist plot. Welch accused Presidents Truman and Eisenhower of being communist sympathizers and possibly Soviet agents. In the 1960s, Welch became convinced that even the Communist movement was a tool of a total conspiracy run by international families of financiers. Source: Wikipedia 
The Stroll 
April 11, 2022
https://youtu.be/UrGLNtZ0rEg The Stroll was a slow rock 'n' roll dance and a song popular in the late 1950s. Performed by The Diamonds, the Stroll reached No. 1 on the Cashbox chart, #4 on the U.S. pop chart, and #5 on the U.S. R&B chart in 1957. The song was ranked #48 on Billboard magazine's Top 50 singles of 1958. Similar to the Virginia Reel, two lines of dancers, men on one side and women on the other, face each other, moving in place to the music. Each paired couple then steps out and does a more elaborate dance up and down between the rows of dancers. Source: Wikipedia
Eisenhower Warns of Communist Threat
April 7, 2022
Text of January 1958 address: The threat to our safety, and to the hope of a peaceful world, can be simply stated. It is communist imperialism. This threat is not something imagined by critics of the Soviets. Soviet spokesmen, from the beginning, have publicly and frequently declared their aim to expand their power, one way or another, throughout the world. The threat has become increasingly serious as this expansionist aim has been reinforced by an advancing industrial, military and scientific establishment. But what makes the Soviet threat unique in history is its all--inclusiveness. Every human activity is pressed into service as a weapon of expansion. Trade, economic development, military power, arts, science, education, the whole world of ideas--all are harnessed to this same chariot of expansion.The Soviets are, in short, waging total cold war. Source: The American Presidency Project
Bobby Fischer US Chess Champion
April 4, 2022
The chess prodigy Bobby Fischer won the 1958 U.S. Championship at age 14. In the 1972 World Championship Fischer won the title match against Boris Spassky of the USSR in Reykjavík, Iceland. Publicized as a Cold War confrontation between the US and USSR, the match attracted more worldwide interest than any chess championship. Source: Wikipedia
Mao’s Great Leap Forward
March 31, 2022
https://youtu.be/60_Q-kAZbXA The Great Leap Forward in the People's Republic of China was an economic and social campaign from 1958 to 1962 that was launched by Chairman Mao Zedong in an attempt to restructure the country from an agrarian economy into a communist society composed of people's communes. The economic disaster caused by the enforcement of drastic Great Leap policies in agrarian China resulted in one of the largest famines in human history. Excess mortality associated with the famine has been estimated to range from 15–55 million deaths.  Source: Great Leap Forward - Wikipedia