Japanese border guard 1934; Wikimedia Commons

In 1934, Amau Eiji, Japanese Foreign Affairs Spokesman, asserted that Japan had the special mission to maintain peace and order in East Asia. The Empire of Japan would therefore oppose any intervention in China by other foreign powers.

This Japanese declaration, similar to America’s Monroe Doctrine, was a direct challenge to the Open Door Policy of the West that allowed all trading nations access to the Chinese market.