In July 1952 the Egyptian Free Officers Movement, led by Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein with General Muhammad Naguib as titular head, seized control of King Farouk’s government buildings, radio stations, and police stations in Cairo. The rule of Egypt passed to military hands and all political parties were banned. 

In 1953 Gamal Abdel Nasser took control of the interior ministry post and pressured General Naguib to conclude the abolition of the monarchy. In June 1953, the monarchy was abolished and the Arab Republic of Egypt declared, with General Mohamed Naguib, as its first president.

After a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, Nasser cracked down on the organization, put President  Naguib under house arrest and assumed executive office. Nasser was formally elected president in 1956.

Main source: History of Egypt under Gamal Abdel Nasser