From January-August 1945 the Allies fought a land battle against Japanese forces on the island of Luzon. Although the Allies had  control of all strategically and economically important locations of the island by March, pockets of Japanese resistance held out in the mountains until the unconditional surrender of Japan in September 1945.

The Battle of Luzon resulted in ~200,000 Japanese combatants dead (mostly from starvation and disease), 10,000 American combatants killed, and between ~130,000 Filipino civilians and combatants killed.