Francis Bellamy, the Christian socialist minister who composed the United States Pledge of Allegiance in 1892 also devised a hand salute to accompany the pledge.

During the 1920-30s Italian fascists and German Nazis adopted a similar salute derived from the Roman salute.

On December 22, 1942 the U.S. Congress amended the Flag Code, and the Bellamy salute was officially replaced by the hand-over-heart salute .