The month-long  Battle of Manila (February-March 1945), pitted American and Philippine forces against Imperial   Japanese occupiers in the most brutal urban fighting of the Pacific War. In addition to massive loss of civilian and military lives, much of the city’s architectural and cultural heritage was destroyed.

Casualties from the Battle of Manila

Allies:1,010 killed. 5,565 wounded
Japanese: 16,000+ killed
100,000 Filipino civilians killed

The most shocking events during the battle of Manila were the unfathomable atrocities committed by Japanese soldiers as it became clear they were losing Manila.

After the war, Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita (the “tiger of Malaya” and commander during the Palawan massacre) was convicted and executed for the Manila massacre and other atrocities committed by soldiers under his command.