Pope Pius XII (born in 1876 as Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli) died on October 9, 1958 after a long, tumultuous, and controversial pontificate (1939–58).

During his reign, Pius XII faced the ravages of World War II, the abuses of the Nazi, fascist, and Soviet regimes, the horror of the Holocaust, the challenge of postwar reconstruction, and the threat of communism and the Cold War.

Deemed an ascetic and “saint of God” by his admirers, Pius was criticized by others for his alleged public silence in the face of genocide and his apparently contradictory policies of impartiality during World War II coupled with fervent anticommunism during the postwar period.

Source: Brittanica.com