In November 1965 the predominantly white Rhodesian Front of Ian Smith declared Independence from the United Kingdom. It was the first unilateral break from the United Kingdom by one of its colonies since the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776.

The United Kingdom deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of rebellion but did not re-establish control by force. In March 1978 Ian Smith reached an accord with three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, who offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial democracy. In June 1979 Muzorewa became prime minister and the country’s name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia.

Source: Wikipedia