The number of casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War was shocking:
- 3.22 million soldiers
- 9.13 million civilians killed in crossfire
- 8.4 million non-military casualties.
- Chinese sources claim ~35 million total casualties (most Western historians estimate at least 20 million).
- In addition, the war created 95 million refugees.
- Estimated 1.1-1.9 million military casualties, killed, wounded & missing
- Japan defense ministry claimed only about 200,000, but this is believed to be extremely low considering the length of the conflict
- Chinese forces claimed 1.77 million Japanese soldiers killed