Understanding our enemies and ourselves year by year
December 1950 Third Battle of Seoul
https://youtu.be/hnlFxo3vUGA On December 31, 1950 a force of 170,000 Chinese forces, augmented with North Korean troops, crossed the frozen Han River to attack Seoul. General Douglas MacArthur, anticipating that UN forces wouldn't be able to stop the Chinese advance, began making preparations for a slow retreat to the Pusan Perimeter. Mao Zedong, however, became convinced that Chinese forces were overextended and not in a state to push the UN out of the Korean Peninsula. He therefore decided to concentrate offensive efforts against the weak South Korean units on the 38th Parallel. By January 3rd, with UN forces penetrated on all sides, the UN forces retreated from Seoul. Chinese and North Korean forces suffered ~8,500 casualties. UN losses were ~ 800 dead, wounded, and captured. Source: World Atlas https://youtu.be/kIdzwBe31gU After the accidental death of Lieutenant General Walton Walker on December 23, General Matthew Ridgway was assigned command of the 8th United States Army Extremely displeased with the performance of his troops, Ridgway took immediate steps to restore the morale and fighting spirit of the UN forces in Korea. Ridgway reorganized the command structure, removed some officers, replaced division commanders who had been in action for six months with fresh leaders and ordered them to spend more time at the front lines than in their command posts in the rear. With Ridgway leading the 8th Army, MacArthur regained confidence in the ability of UN forces to hold Korea, and abandoned preparations for evacuation of the peninsula. Under Ridgway, with copious use of field artillery, UN tactics changed from an aggressive stance to fighting protective, delaying actions. Chinese casualties became very high as they launched human attack waves into the coordinated artillery fire and their offensive was decisively slowed. Source: Historynet
Battle of the Ch’ongch’on River
https://youtu.be/F8UGXcSItC0 Along the Ch'ongch'on River On November 25, 1950, the Chinese 13th Army launched a series of surprise attacks along the Ch’ongch’on River Valley, decimating the U.S. 8th Army’s right flank while allowing Chinese forces to move rapidly into UN rear areas. With continued fighting from November 26 to December 2, 1950, the Chinese inflicted heavy losses on the retreating UN forces. After this decisive battle, the 8th Army's heavy losses forced all UN forces to withdraw south to the 38th parallel.
Top Movies of 1950
https://youtu.be/s9_vnMHYyig Top-grossing American films of 1950 RankTitleStudioBox-office gross rental1King Solomon's MinesMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer$5,047,0002Annie Get Your Gun$4,708,0003Cheaper by the Dozen20th Century Fox$4,425,0004CinderellaWalt Disney/RKO Radio Pictures$4,300,0005Born YesterdayColumbia Pictures$4,150,0006Father of the BrideMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer$4,036,0007Broken ArrowAt War with the Army20th Century FoxParamount Pictures$3,350,0008Three Little WordsMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer$3,019,0009FrancisAll About EveUniversal Pictures20th Century Fox$2,900,00010KimMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer$2,896,000 The Best Movies of All Time, Picked by Critics & Filmmakers ~ Films 101 RATING - 5 stars from top ofthe list to 3 stars at the bottom TITLE YEAR DIRECTOR COUNTRYMEDIA Rashômon1950Kurosawa, AkiraJapanBDAll About Eve1950Mankiewicz, Joseph L.USABDSSunset Boulevard1950Wilder, BillyUSABDSLos Olvidados1950Buñuel, LuisMexicoYOrpheus1950Cocteau, JeanFranceBDThe Asphalt Jungle1950Huston, JohnUSABDSIn a Lonely Place1950Ray, NicholasUSABDBorn Yesterday1950Cukor, GeorgeUSADGun Crazy1950Lewis, Joseph H.USABYWinchester '731950Mann, AnthonyUSADThe Men1950Zinnemann, FredUSABDLa Ronde1950Ophüls, MaxFranceDPanic in the Streets1950Kazan, EliaUSABDThe Gunfighter1950King, HenryUSADFather of the Bride1950Minnelli, VincenteUSADHarvey1950Koster, HenryUSABDD.O.A.1950Maté, RudolphUSADWagon Master1950Ford, JohnUSABDCinderella1950Geronimi, Clyde / Jackson, Wilfred / Luske, HamiltonUSABDCyrano de Bergerac1950Gordon, MichaelUSABDSSeven Days to Noon1950Boulting, John / Boulting, RoyUKBDKing Solomon's Mines1950Bennett, Compton / Marton, AndrewUSAYStromboli1950Rossellini, RobertoItalyBDRio Grande1950Ford, JohnUSABDThe Blue Lamp1950Dearden, BasilUKBeauty and the Devil1950Clair, RenéFrance / ItalyYNight and the City1950Dassin, JulesUKBDSTreasure Island1950Haskin, ByronUK / USADLes Enfants terribles1950Melville, Jean-PierreFranceDStage Fright1950Hitchcock, AlfredUKDThe Elusive Pimpernel1950Powell, Michael / Pressburger, EmericUKGone to Earth1950Powell, Michael / Pressburger, EmericUKStars in My Crown1950Tourneur, JacquesUSAYThree Came Home1950Negulesco, JeanUSADThe Sound of Fury1950Endfield, CyUSAYThe Happiest Days of Your Life1950Launder, FrankUKYAnnie Get Your Gun1950Sidney, George / Berkeley, Busby / Walters, CharlesUSADThe Flame and the Arrow1950Tourneur, JacquesUSADSSummer Stock1950Walters, CharlesUSABDThree Little Words1950Thorpe, RichardUSADThe Flowers of St. Francis1950Rossellini, RobertoItalyDNo Man of Her Own1950Leisen, MitchellUSADJustice est faite1950Cayatte, AndréFranceThe Breaking Point1950Curtiz, MichaelUSABDKim1950Saville, VictorUSADBabul1950Sunny, S.U.IndiaBroken Arrow1950Daves, DelmerUSABDCheaper by the Dozen1950Lang, WalterUSADDestination Moon1950Pichel, IrvingUSADFamily Portrait1950Jennings, HumphreyUKDFrancis1950Lubin, ArthurUSADJogan1950Sharma, Kidar NathIndiaManthiri Kumari1950Dungan, Ellis / Sundaram, T.R.IndiaPadeniye Berlina1950Chiaureli, MikheilSoviet UnionScandal1950Kurosawa, AkiraJapanDSummer Interlude1950Bergman, IngmarSwedenBDVictory of the Chinese People1950Gerasimov, Sergei / Dukinsky, IvanChina / Soviet UnionThe Black Rose1950Hathaway, HenryUKDChampagne for Caesar1950Whorf, RichardUSADThe Man on the Eiffel Tower1950Meredith, Burgess / Allen, Irving / Laughton, CharlesUSA / FranceDYoung Man with a Horn1950Curtiz, MichaelUSADSThe Titan: Story of Michelangelo1950Lyford, Richard / Flaherty, Robert J. / Oertel, CurtSwitzerland / West GermanyÉdouard et Caroline1950Becker, JacquesFranceCaged1950Cromwell, JohnUSADieu a besoin des hommes1950Delannoy, JeanFrancePrima comunione1950Blasetti, AlessandroItaly / FranceState Secret1950Gilliat, SidneyUKEdge of Doom1950Robson, MarkUSAKon-Tiki1950Heyerdahl, ThorNorway / SwedenYNo Way Out1950Mankiewicz, Joseph L.USADStrange Deception1950Malaparte, CurzioItalyYDomenica d'agosto1950Emmer, LucianoItalyNo Resting Place1950Rotha, PaulUKVenom and Eternity1950Isou, IsidoreFranceAtom Man vs. Superman1950Bennet, Spencer GordonUSADBuccaneer's Girl1950De Cordova, FrederickUSADCounterspy Meets Scotland Yard1950Friedman, SeymourUSADFood for Feudin'1950Nichols, Charles A.USADThe Furies1950Mann, AnthonyUSADHouse by the River1950Lang, FritzUSABDThe Lone Ranger1950Archainbaud, George / Seitz, George B. Jr. / Morse, HollingsworthUSADLooney Tunes - Golden Collection, Volume Five1950Jones, Chuck / Clampett, Bob / Freleng, Friz / Avery, Tex / McKimson, Robert / Tashlin, FrankUSADThe Man Who Cheated Himself1950Feist, Felix E.USAD711 Ocean Drive1950Newman, Joseph M.USADUnder My Skin1950Negulesco, JeanUSADThe West Point Story1950Del Ruth, RoyUSADWestern Pacific Agent1950Newfield, SamUSADWhere the Sidewalk Ends1950Preminger, OttoUSADWoman on the Run1950Foster, NormanUSABD
Fire Bombing North Korean Cities
https://youtu.be/5v4_kNVCgXc 1952 Attack on Pyongyang From June to October 1950 US Far East Air Force (FEAF) B-29 bombers limited their targets to transport centers and industrial hubs in North Korea. Nevertheless, these "precision bombing" attacks resulted in a high rate of civilian casualties. On November 3, 1950 General Douglas MacArthur approved for the first time firebombing against the cities of Sinujiju, Kanggye and several other North Korean towns. Referring to the attack on Kanggye, MacArthur reportedly said: "...destroy it as a lesson to any other of those towns that you consider of military value to the enemy." The FEAF commander General George Stratemeyer then sent orders to the Fifth Air Force and Bomber Command to "destroy every means of communications and every installation, factory, city, and village." On 5 November 1950 twenty-two B-29s attacked Kanggye, destroying 75% of the city. goodfreephotos.com Britannica.com In the wake of the Kanggye attack, FEAF began an intensive firebombing campaign that quickly incinerated multiple Korean cities. Three weeks after the attacks began, the air force assessed the damage as follows: Ch'osan - 85%Hoeryong (Hoeryŏng)- 90%Huich'on (Hŭich'ŏn)- 75%Kanggye - 75%Kointong - 90%Manp'ochin - 95%Namsi - 90%Sakchu - 75%Sinuichu - 60%Uichu - 20% Source: Bombing of North Korea Wikimedia Commons wallpaper flare Available evidence points toward the conclusion that the firebombing of North Korea’s cities, towns, and villages produced more civilian deaths than any other bombing campaign in history. Nagasaki Park - Pixabay.com Bombing Civilians: A 20th-century historyThis book provides a comprehensive review and powerful moral criticism regarding the indiscriminate but also deliberate bombing of civilian populations
Marijuana Scare Films
In the 1950s increased access to automobiles gave American teenagers a variety of freedoms and temptations that were unimaginable to previous generations. As many American parents became worried, marijuana became a major source of concern. The Complicated History of Cannabis in the US . https://youtu.be/Zo4V3q3BF0Y Encyclopedia Britannica produced this mental hygiene film to warn kids about the dangers of smoking pot. https://youtu.be/9YV92V1pvOY
Guys and Dolls Award-Winning Broadway Musical
https://youtu.be/SiUK-TDTIpo In 1950 the musical Guys and Dolls premiered on Broadway. The hit show continued for 1,200 performances and in 1951 won the Tony Award for best musical. In 1955 the show was made into a movie starring Marlon Brando, Jean Simmons, Frank Sinatra, and Vivian Blaine. https://youtu.be/F-exufzfOGU
The Killer That Stalked New York
The Killer That Stalked New York was a 1950 American motion picture starring Evelyn Keyes, Charles Korvin and William Bishop. Shot in New York in a semi-documentary style, the plot concerns a smallpox outbreak unwittingly imported by diamond smugglers.The film was based on an article published in Cosmopolitan in 1948 about an actual outbreak of smallpox in New York in 1947. N.B. - In this 1950 movie, a character mentions that the population of New York City was 8 million. I assumed it would be much larger now, but not so. https://streeteasy.com/blog/nyc-population/
Truman Hints A-Bomb
https://youtu.be/WQ5X_N4CzUA On November 30, 1950, after the Chinese Communist army entered the Korean conflict, President Harry Truman announced that he was prepared to authorize use of atomic weapons in order to achieve peace in Korea. Additionally, Truman accused the Soviet Union of using Communist Chinese forces to spread Communism into Asia. In response to questions from the press regarding what measures the U.S. might take, Truman responded “whatever steps were necessary” to contain communist expansion in Korea. A reporter then asked “Will that include the atomic bomb?” Truman replied, “That includes every weapon that we have.” Source: History.com
14th Dalai Lama
https://youtu.be/6dqYEfpJbA4 In November 1950 15-year-old Tenzin Gyatso was enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama, becoming chief of state of the semi-independent kingdom, and the spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists worldwide. Born as Lhamo Thondup in 1935 and identified as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, who had died in 1933, Thondup arrived at Lhasa when he was four years old, and was installed on the Lion's Throne four months later.
Tootsie Rolls Saved US Marines
https://youtu.be/8emP0_xDP2Q As the temperature reached -38°C during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir in late November 1950, weapons began to malfunction. Tank fuel pipes froze and cracked. Running out of mortar rounds, the US Marines requested more mortar shells (codenamed "Tootsie Rolls") by airdrop. With the next airdrop that's what they actually received - boxes of Tootsie Rolls. Ingenuity transformed a potential disaster into success. The solid lumps of chocolate toffee that melted in your mouth could also be applied to seal cracked fuel lines. With the tanks up and running again the Marines were able to continue their perilous escape from overwhelming Communist Chinese forces. Source: How Tootsie Rolls Saved US Marines In The Korean War - HeadStuff
https://youtu.be/JOxvHkBpYX8 For Americans, the tragic battle at the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir in late November 1950 might be compared to Custer's last stand. For the victorious Chinese Communists it was a Pyrrhic victory with heavy losses. In the initial phases of the Korean War the North Korean forces had swept down the Korean Peninsula to the very tip at Busan. UN forces barely held on to their last toehold at the Busan (Pusan) perimeter. After MacArthur's masterful landing at Incheon (Inchon), South Korea was soon liberated from North Korean forces. Rather than stop at the 38th parallel, UN forces pushed far into North Korea.Communist Chinese warnings regarding likely intervention if UN forces continued north were ignored. Amidst serious U.S. diplomatic and intelligence errors, the significance of several major engagements with Chinese troops in NW and NE Korea was minimized by UN command. By Thanksgiving 1950 UN forces had reached the Yalu River on the border between North Korea and China. It seemed that our boys would be home by Christmas. Wikipedia Then came the devastating attack on US Marines and Army around the Chosin Reservoir by overwhelming numbers of Chinese troops. Wikipedia US Marines west of the reservoir and US Army to the east were encircled by ~120,000 Chinese troops. The US Army's Task Force Faith east of the reservoir bore the brunt of the Chinese offensive and suffered extremely heavy casualties. After 9 days of relentless Chinese attacks, UN forces, loaded with wounded, were able to break out and make a fighting withdrawal through treacherous mountain roads lined with Chinese troops firing on them from the high ground. https://youtu.be/dlyYn6S3J_4 Survivors of the battle reached the port of Hungnam on December 11, 1950. https://youtu.be/sGcR8b65Uwg
Long Island Train Crash
The Kew Gardens Long Island train crash was a collision between two trains on the Long Island Rail Road's mainline during the evening rush hour of November 22, 1950. 78 people were killed and 363 injured. The crash is the worst railway accident in LIRR history and one of the worst in the history of New York State. Source: Wikipedia
Wikipedia Beetle Bailey, an American comic strip by Mort Walker was first published in September 1950. Set on a fictional United States Army post, the comic strip satirized the life of an Army private during American wars in Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf, Iraq and Afghanistan. Source: Wikipedia In the years just before Walker's death in 2018 (at age 94), it was among the oldest comic strips still being produced by its original creator.The characters in the comic strip included: PVT Beetle BaileySGT Snorkel. CookieKiller DillerPrivate PlatoLT FuzzCPT Scabbard GEN Halftrack ~ comicvine.gamespot.com
https://youtu.be/BjlrJzCfTMI In the late afternoon of November 1, 1950 thousands of Chinese soldiers, accompanied by eerie bugle calls, descended from the hills near Unsan, North Korea throwing hand grenades and firing burp guns at scattered units of the U.S. 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division and South Korean ROK forces moving deep into North Korea. Wikipedia alchetron.com Within hours the ROK 15th Regiment on the 8th Cavalry’s right flank collapsed, while the 1st and 2d Battalions of the 8th Cavalry fell back in disarray into the city of Unsan. Wikipedia On the morning of November 2 men of the US 8th Cavalry attempting to withdraw met a Chinese roadblock that forced them to abandon their artillery and take to the hills in small groups. Only a few scattered survivors made it back to UN lines. Other elements of the 1st Cavalry Division tried unsuccessfully to reach the isolated battalion with a two-battalion counterattack on the dug-in Chinese positions encircling the 8th Cavalry, but were unable to break through the Chinese line. At twilight with the relief effort unsuccessful, survivors broke into small groups to retreat under cover of darkness—most did not make it and >800 hundred men of the 8th Cavalry were lost. The massive Chinese attacks shocked the UN forces. After the Incheon landing and breakout from the Pusan Perimeter, the war seemed to have been won. But now the Chinese had entered the war in force. Source: The Korean War: The Chinese Intervention
French Communism 1950
https://youtu.be/V3dHS3xirhU The French Communist Party (Parti Communiste Français- PCF) was banned in 1939 at the outbreak of WWII when it opposed the war. Since the USSR and Nazi Germany had a neutrality pact, the PCF may have actually sabotaged arms production. Threatened with execution, the PCF leadership fled abroad. When Germany invaded Russia in 1940 the PCF formed the National Front within the broader French resistance movement and organized direct action and political assassinations through the armed Francs-Tireurs et Partisans. By the end of German occupation in 1944, the party, now powerful in many parts of France, entered into the governing Tripartite alliance with the French Section of the Workers' International and the Christian Mouvement Républicain Populaire. PCF strength peaked in France at the end of WWII. Gaining parliamentary representation in successive elections, the PCF promoted strikes and opposed colonialism. In 1947, midst rising concern regarding Communist influence, the PCF was excluded from the French government. Under pressure from Moscow, the PCF withdrew from other parties and focussed on agitation within its trade union base. Source: Britannica.com
US Army Reaches Yalu River
On November 13, 1950 US Navy carrier planes destroyed ~85% of the military camp at Hyesanjin. on the Yalu River between North Korea and China. Yalu River - Wikipedia On November 21, 1950 US Army 7th Division elements of X Corps occupied Hyesanjin and surrounding ground to the banks of the Yalu River.General MacArthur sent a message to the X Corps commander General Almond: "Heartiest congratulations, Ned, and tell Dave Barr that the 7th Division hit the jackpot."General Almond added his own congratulations to Barr: "The fact that only twenty days ago this division landed amphibiously over the beaches at Iwon and advanced 200 miles over tortuous mountain terrain and fought successfully against a determined foe in subzero weather will be recorded in history as an outstanding military achievement." Source: X Corps at the Yalu River At the Yalu River 11/21/50 Left to Right: Generals Kiefer, Hodes, Almond, Barr Visiting the 17th Infantry, at HyesanjinKorean War Online
Aaron Copland Clarinet Concerto
Commissioned by jazz clarinetist Benny Goodman, Aaron Copland composed his Symphony No. 3 - Concerto for clarinet, strings and harp. It was first performed by Benny Goodman on a radio broadcast with the NBC Symphony Orchestra in November 1950. Copland wrote: "The instrumentation being clarinet with strings, harp, and piano, I did not have a large battery of percussion to achieve jazzy effects, so I used slapping basses and whacking harp sounds to simulate them. The Clarinet Concerto ends with a fairly elaborate coda in C major that finishes off with a clarinet glissando – or "smear" in jazz lingo." Although composed specifically for him, Benny Goodman felt there were some technical challenges above his skill level, and therefore altered the original score to lower some of the higher notes to make them easier to play.Source: Wikipedia https://youtu.be/GwPvLMlGWPI
MiG-15 Enters the war
https://youtu.be/tsGREOUphOM On November 30, 1950 a U.S. Air Force B-29 Superfortress, attacking an air base in North Korea, was lightly damaged by a lightning-fast, unidentified fighter. The B-29's gunner was unable to fix the fast enemy fighter in the gunsights of his tracking system. The straight-wing Lockheed F-80 jets that were escorting the bomber made a token pursuit, but the enemy fighter rapidly disappeared. Source: The Jet that Shocked the West | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine Mig-15 Needpix.com The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 was one of the first successful jet fighters to incorporate swept wings to achieve high transonic speeds (flying at or near the speed of sound - 767 mph at sea level) under average conditions). In combat over Korea the Mig-15 outclassed straight-winged jet day fighters, which were largely relegated to ground-attack roles .Originally intended to intercept American bombers like the B-29s, the MiG-15 carried autocannons: two 23 mm with 80 rounds per gun and a single 37 mm with 40 rounds. Although these weapons provided tremendous punch in the interceptor role, their limited rate of fire and relatively low velocity made it more difficult to score hits against small and maneuverable enemy jet fighters in air-to-air combat. LOCKHEED F-80 - Wikipedia The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first turbojet-powered fighter used operationally by the United States Army Air Force. Although developed in 1943, it saw only limited service in Italy just before the end of WWII. Outperformed by the swept-wing transonic MiG-15 in Korea, the F-80 and was quickly replaced with the transonic F-86 Sabre. F-86 Sabre - Wikipedia Developed in the late 1940s, the F-86 was one of the most important fighter aircraft in the Korean War. The F-86 was produced as both a fighter-interceptor and fighter-bomber. The fighter-bomber version (F-86H) could carry up to 2,000 lbs. of bombs and an external fuel-type tank that could carry napalm. Both the interceptor and fighter-bomber F-86 versions carried six 12.7 mm M3 Browning machine guns with electrically boosted feed in the nose that could fire at a rate of 1,200 rounds per minute. The guns, using armor-piercing incendiary rounds, were synchronized to converge at 1,000 ft in front of the aircraft USAF pilots - NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE Mig-15 pilot - NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE While many American pilots in the Korean war were experienced WWII veterans, the North Koreans and the Chinese pilots lacked combat experience. Although denied at the time, former Communist sources later acknowledged that, while North Korean and Chinese pilots increased their combat participation as the war went on, Soviet pilots initially flew the majority of MiG-15s that fought in Korea. In Mig Alley, an area near the mouth of the Yalu River (the boundary between Korea and China), the North Koreans and their allies periodically contested UN air superiority. Mig Alley - Wikipedia https://youtu.be/hE-RQCTt1UM
Defense Production Act
The Defense Production Act of 1950 was part of a broad civil defense and war mobilization effort granting the president the power to expand industrial production of key materials or products for national security and other reasons in the context of the Cold War. Since 1950, the Act has been reauthorized over 50 times and has been periodically amended. Under the Act's authority, President Harry S. Truman eventually established the Office of Defense Mobilization, instituted wage and price controls, strictly regulated production in heavy industries such as steel and mining, prioritized and allocated industrial materials in short supply, and ordered the dispersal of wartime manufacturing plants across the nation. Source: Wikipedia
All About Eve
https://youtu.be/LSntQerk8cQ All About Eve was a 1950 American film based on the 1946 short story The Wisdom of Eve by Mary Orr. The film starred Bette Davis , Anne Baxter , George Sanders, and Celeste Holm. Marilyn Monroe also appeared in one of her earliest film roles. All About Eve won six Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture. Widely praised, All About Eve was selected for preservation in the United States Library of Congress' National Film Registry, as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." Source: Wikipedia Here is a recent New York Times post re: the film
Bombing North Korea
https://youtu.be/AVuy3e1vDYw Early in the war, after the virtual destruction of the North Korean Air Force, U.S. Far East Air Force (FEAF) B-29 bombers carried out massive aerial attacks on transport centers and industrial hubs in North Korea. During this period, the official U.S. policy was to pursue precision bombing aimed at communication centers railroad yards and industrial facilities deemed vital to war-making capacity. In early July 1950, General Emmett O'Donnell, Commander in Chief of Pacific Air Forces proposed to General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of Allied Powers, that the U.N. forces initiate firebombing methods such as those used against Japan toward the end of WWII. MacArthur is said to have responded: "No... I'm not prepared to go that far yet. My instructions are very explicit; however, I want you to know that I have no compunction whatever to your bombing bona fide military objectives, with high explosives, in major industrial centers. If you miss your target and kill people or destroy other parts of the city, I accept that as a part of war." In September 1950, MacArthur reported to the United Nations, "The problem of avoiding the killing of innocent civilians and damages to the civilian economy is continually present and given my personal attention." In October 1950, FEAF commander General George Stratemeyer requested permission to attack the city of Sinuiju, a provincial capital with an estimated population of 60,000, over the widest area of the city, without warning, by burning and high explosives. MacArthur's headquarters responded the following day: "The general policy enunciated from Washington negates such an attack unless the military situation clearly requires it. Under present circumstances, this is not the case." whereismap Despite the official precision bombing policy of UN forces, North Korea reported extensive civilian casualties. Wikipedia The apparent contradiction between a policy of precision bombing and reports of high civilian casualties might be explained by the very low accuracy of bombing. B-29 begins the bombing attack against a target in North Korea in February 1951National Museum of the United States Air Force According to a FEAF analysis, 209 bombs had to be dropped to reach an 80% likelihood of hitting a 20 by 500 foot target. Since many targets of the "precision" campaign were located in populated areas, high numbers of civilians were killed despite the policy of limited targeting. Source: Wikipedia
In October 1950, Mother Teresa and the small community formed by her former pupils received permission from the Diocese of Calcutta (Kolkata) India to identify as a Catholic organization. Her order the Missionaries of Charity, subsequently received approval from Pope Pius XII. Mother Teresa stated that her mission was to care for the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared for throughout society, people that have become a burden to the society and are shunned by everyone. Anitamathias.com My wife and I volunteered at her mission next to the Khalighat temple in 1993 after which I wrote the following:
Cold War ~ Polish Movie
Cold War is a Polish film directed by Pawel Pawlikowski that stars Joanna Kulig and Tomasz Kot. The plot follows the passionate and fateful romance of a couple from the ruins of post-war Poland through Cold War East Berlin, Yugoslavia and Paris. Shaped by politics, character flaws and unfortunate twists of fate, the film follows the couple through the somber landscape of Eastern-block countries, out to the West and back to Communist Poland again. Although fatalistic and depressing, the film is well-crafted and sheds interesting light on life in a Cold War Communist state. Rather than oversimplify the suppression in a police state, the film shows how indirect coercion and individual ambivalence can exert powerful control. Cold War received nominations at the 91st Academy Awards for: Best Foreign Language Film, Best Director and Best Cinematography. And at the 72nd British Academy Film Awards for: Best Direction and Best non-English language film.
https://youtu.be/O5tf6SQjFlQ In 1950 the Federal Communications Commission issued the first license for color TV broadcasting, to CBS. Although the field-sequential color system developed by Dr. Peter Goldmark was the first color television system to be adopted for commercial use, it was abandoned a year later because its signal could not be received on ordinary black and white television sets without a special adapter. Color TV sets first became available in American stores in December 1953. https://youtu.be/De6ji-rz6ZY
https://youtu.be/PfoxqghXxEs In 1950 Polio was one of the most serious communicable diseases among children in the United States. Thousands of children were infected by the virus, and many were paralyzed or died. Source: Our World in Data Hospitals developed special units with "iron lung: ventilating devices https://youtu.be/xUOlLNKBHiY 1953 Dr. Jonas Salk successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis. Flickr.com In 1955, the U.S. began widespread vaccinations. By 1979, the virus had been completely eliminated across the country. Source: NPR My childhood home Today polio remains endemic in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. http://www.amcharts.com/visited_countries/#
UCLA Red Cell
With the rise of anti-Communist rhetoric reminiscent of the post-WWI Great Red Scare, the University of California system was accused in the late 1940s of harboring Communist infiltrators. In 1949 the Regents of the University adopted a policy requiring all faculty and staff to swear a loyalty oath that disavowed membership in the Communist Party. AllPosters.com In October 1950 the Saturday Evening Post ran an investigative report by William L. Worden, entitled "UCLA's Red Cell: Case History of College Communism." Worden claimed that the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) was infiltrated by Communists, and student protests against racial discrimination were examples of their influence. Worden labeled the 50 Communist Party members identified in the 17,000 member university a Communist cell. His report stimulated calls to investigate the entire California state university system. Source Wikipedia By August 1950, 36 members of the faculty and 62 other UC employees were dismissed for refusing to sign the loyalty oath. https://youtu.be/A4LpLqHNOTk
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
In 1950 C. S. Lewis, a Christian apologist, published The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, the first of seven children's fantasy novels in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956). The story follows four English children, evacuated to an old country house during wartime, as they pass through a magic wardrobe to visit Narnia, a land of talking animals and mythical creatures ruled by the evil White Witch. Because the character Aslan, appearing in all seven books of the series, is widely accepted as based on Jesus Christ, The Chronicles of Narnia developed a large Christian following (although some objected to recurrent themes of paganism and occultism). Source: Wikipedia In 2005, the story was adapted for a movie co-produced by Walt Disney and Walden Media. https://youtu.be/pYcGFLgJ8Uo
U.S. Intelligence Mistakes in Korea
https://youtu.be/EvRddxXFsyQ This "solid intelligence" might be a bit overstated... By early 1950 military build-up of Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) forces and equipment along the 38th parallel was clearly identified by both U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Army G2 surveillance networks. However, regarding a possible North Korean attack, the dominant themes in U.S. intelligence analysis were: DPRK forces could not mount a successful attack without Soviet assistancean attack would signal a world-wide Communist offensiveemerging from WWII and Civil War, neither the USSR nor Communist China would initiate a worldwide conflict https://vividmaps.com/korean-war-1950-1953/ Throughout early June 1950, intelligence reports from South Korea and the CIA reported: removal of civilians from the border arearestriction of all transport capabilities for military use onlymovements of infantry and armor units to the border area. On June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea. PaperlessArchives.com In September 1950, two months into the war, a CIA Intelligence Memorandum assumed that the Chinese were already providing covert assistance to the DPRK, but overt assistance by Communist China would require Soviet approval to risk a general war. The CIA memorandum concluded that although reports of Chinese troop buildups along the Manchurian border made intervention possible, there were no direct indications that China would intervene, Wikipedia At the end of September 1950, the US Ambassador in Moscow reported that Soviet and Chinese contacts told both the British and Dutch Ambassadors that if foreign troops cross the 38th parallel, China would intervene.These warnings were ignored, and although General MacArthur was ordered to advance only South Korean troops to the Yalu River,, US-UN forces continued to push the DRPK forces northward. Source: Two Strategic Intelligence Mistakes in Korea, 1950 — Central Intelligence Agency Wikipedia On November 25 1950 a 300,000-man Chinese offensive caught U.N. forces off guard.
George Burns and Gracie Allen
https://youtu.be/H_KNViwQScw The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show was a popular half-hour CBS television series broadcast from 1950 to 1958. Burns and Allen, vaudevillians in the 1920s, and radio stars in the 1930-40s, received Emmy Award nominations for their TV comedy series throughout its eight-year run. After Gracie Allen, tired and troubled by a heart condition, retired in 1958, George Burns tried to continue the show with the remaining cast, but lasted only one year. https://youtu.be/SJULId_Gx14
https://youtu.be/znRecjPqO74 This rather, robotic-voiced discussion seems a reasonable review of the facts surrounding this dark page in Korean War history. In October 1950, North Korea (DPRK) claims that, during the retreat of the DPRK's Korean Peoples Army from Hwanghae Province, Southern Korea (ROK) military forces (authorized by U.S. military) killed ~35,000 people. Other sources dispute the death toll and accuse Korean right-wing security police and communists of the killings. Source: Wikipedia North Korea claims the event (referred to as the Sinchon Massacre) resulted in the deaths of ~1/4 of the population of Sinchon over the course of 52 days before a counterattack by Chinese and North Korean forces. Here is what North Koreans are told today at the Sinchon Museum of American War Atrocities. https://youtu.be/wDexrR4m4cU The Sinchon massacre “cannot be understood simply as killings between the left and the right,” South Korean historian Han Sung Hoon alleges. It must be understood three-dimensionally, as the explosive result of the contradictions emanating from the colonial period after liberation, combined with the division and establishment of two separate states in the North and South, and eventual war, which exacerbated the internal problems of class, hierarchy, and religion.” - Allthatsinteresting.com “
China Invades Tibet
https://youtu.be/HwF1xWEddfo In 1913 Tibet declared independence from China. Potala palace - Wikipedia In October 1950 China invaded Tibet. ZanderSchubert - Wikipedia In May 1951, Tibet affirmed China's sovereignty and established an autonomous administration led by Dalai Lama. Wikimedia Commons In 1959 the Dalai Lama fled to northern India and established the Central Tibetan Administration. Emblem of Exiled Tibetan People's Organisation - Wikimedia The Tibet Autonomous Region within China was officially established in 1965. Source: History of Tibet (1950–present)
https://youtu.be/Zd_Weg6Dlw4 In 1950, Canadian electrical engineer John Hopps built the first external pacemaker based upon observations by cardio-thoracic surgeons at Toronto General Hospital. With vacuum tube technology, powered by AC from a wall socket, the device posed the potential hazard of electrocution, might produce dangerous ventricular fibrillation and was painful to the patient. In 1952 a smaller, but still bulky transcutaneous pacing devices was developed using a large rechargeable battery as the power supply. In 1957, William L. Weirich demonstrated the restoration of heart rate, cardiac output and blood pressure in animals with complete heart block through the use of a myocardial electrode. In 1958 the Alberto Vejarano Laverde and Jorge Reynolds Pombo constructed a 45kg external pacemaker, powered by a 12 volt car battery and connected to the heart by electrode. The 1956 invention of the silicon transistor led to rapid development of practical cardiac pacemaking. https://youtu.be/_fC8JQwm-UU
Truman & MacArthur on Wake Island
Source: October 1950 - Wikipedia https://youtu.be/rfmejTkQ4Lw On October 15, 1950 (one day after the Chinese army had crossed the Yalu) U.S. President Harry S. Truman and General Douglas MacArthur met on Wake Island to confer about the progress of the Korean War. Truman and MacArthur met privately at the conference and, therefore, there is no record of their conversation. However, by most reports, MacArthur assured Truman that Communist China would not send troops into Korea, and if they did, he would would destroy them. In his fascinating book Douglas MacArthur: American Warrior, Arthur Herman describes the Wake Island meeting: "What are the chances of Chinese or Soviet interference?" Truman asked. "Very little," MacArthur replied, puffing on his pipe..."Had they interfered in the first or second months it would have been decisive. We are no longer fearful of their intervention."
Tom Corbett Space Cadet
Developed by the writer Joseph Greene, and inspired by the Robert A. Heinlein's 1948 novel Space Cadet, the TV series Tom Corbett Space Cadet first appeared on CBS TV in 1950. The series followed Corbett and other cadets at the Space Academy as they trained to become members of the Solar Guard. The action took place at the academy, aboard the rocket cruiser Polaris and on alien worlds.
https://youtu.be/pl-0uqJhi3o In October 1950, led by Võ Nguyên Giáp, Communist troops in the northern region of the French colony of Vietnam began a series of attacks on French colonial fortresses along the border with China. 10,000 French troops. isolated in jungle forts fell by the middle of October,1950. In a speech in the French National Assembly that month, Pierre Mendés France advocated negotiating a cease fire with the Communists. Later, as Premier of France in 1954, he ended the French involvement in Vietnam.
China Enters the Korean War
https://youtu.be/M_aY_GMcPng Historians still debate the relative positions of the USSR and Communist China re: involvement in the Korean War. The traditional view has been that, emerging from the catastrophe of WWII, Joseph Stalin insisted that the North Korean government exhaust all efforts to bring a peaceful solution to the North-South divide prior to initiating war. However in late 1949, Stalin apparently approved Kim Il-sung's plan to attack South Korea, but cautioned that the USSR would not participate beyond supplying North Korea with weapons. Stalin urged the North Korean leader to approach Mao Zedong for any further assistance he needed. https://youtu.be/gFLz2juVbY8 After the prolonged Sino-Japanese and Chinese Civil wars, Mao Zedong may not have been enthusiastic about yet another war in the Eastern Pacific. Nevertheless, his motivation is likewise controversial. One view, commonly held in the West, is that when the United States landed at Inchon, Mao recognized that the United States and the UN could quickly overrun North Korea and threaten China's border. At that point, Mao decided to support North Korea with or without Soviet aid. Another view, is that Mao's overriding criteria was not whether US forces would cross the 38th parallel, but whether their dispatch by Chinese forces might help to solidify the new Chinese Communist regime.Regardless of its motivation, In September 1950 China mobilized troops and resources in preparation for possible escalation, and issued a warning through Indian ambassador Kavalam Madhava Panikkar that China would intervene in the war if the American troops entered North Korea. The US National Security Council and Secretary of State disregarded these warnings, telling the press that Chinese intervention would be “sheer madness.” After the U.S. troops crossed the 38th parallel on September 25, China made the decision to intervene. https://youtu.be/LuttcLGswxQ On October 14, 1950 the Thirteenth Corps of China's People's Volunteer Army marched across the Yalu River marking the border between China and North Korea as the first of hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops to invade the Korean Peninsula.
https://youtu.be/cwUAK5OapZA The Miss America competition is open to women between the ages of 17 and 25 Originating in 1921 as a "bathing beauty revue", the contest is now judged on competitors' talent performances and interviews. (As of 2018, there is no longer a swimsuit portion to the contest, or consideration of physical appearance). The 1949 Miss America was married and divorced during her reign. All contestants thereafter had to certify they had never been married or pregnant. Starting in 1950, the Miss America title was "post-dated"— thus the September1950 pageant winner became Miss America 1951 (there was no Miss America 1950). Miss America 1951 Yolande Betbeze
America in Space
https://youtu.be/XcCfcKhXv4w Image credit: NASA In July 1950 the first rocket was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The General Electric Bumper 2 was a two-stage rocket made of a V-2 missile base topped with a WAC Corporal rocket, capable of reaching an altitude of ~400 kilometers.The Bumper 2 was used primarily for testing rocket systems and measuring atmospheric attributes such as air temperature and the impact of cosmic rays. Of course, the moon should be the next destination.
Bombing North Korea
https://youtu.be/TGY7_WAvkj0 From 1950-53 the United States Air Force (USAF) carried out an extensive bombing campaign against North Korea. It is estimated that conventional bombs, incendiaries and napalm destroyed ~85 percent of the buildings in major North Korean cities and towns. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZHtJG9UG7A ,As in the WWII firebombing of Germany and Japan, many consider this direct targeting of civilian populations to be an atrocity. Bombing of North Korea 1950-1953Unknown to most Americans, the US ‘totally destroyed’ North Korea How American Air Power Destroyed North Korea Americans once carpet-bombed North Korea. The U.S. war crime North Korea won’t forget
Korean War Atrocities
The Korean War was a brutal affair on all sides. Declassified U.S. National Archive military documents show that U.S. commanders repeatedly ordered their forces to kill Korean refugees on the battlefieldCivilians believed to be enemy collaborators and/or inadequately supportive of their state were killed by state-directed executions in both North and South Korea Many civilian deaths occurred during combat operations (including bombings) by Chinese, South Korean, North Korean, and American forcesBoth North and South states sponsored inter-village reprisal killings by civiliansAmerican and ROK prisoners of war were killed by North Korean forces. Source: Mass Atrocity Endings Initially, the United Nations claimed only the North committed atrocities. https://youtu.be/vQxID-ifve8 https://youtu.be/8SP5LTuCco4 Eventually, it became evident that American and South Korean forces also committed such acts. https://youtu.be/PoEKKmc-V78
Duck and Cover
In December 1950, President Harry Truman created the Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA). The FCDA was charged with creating shelter, evacuation, and training programs to be implemented by state and local governments. However, no funds were assigned to implement the act and subsequent administrations provided only minimal resources to carry out these goals, investing instead in military and diplomatic programs designed to prevent nuclear war. https://youtu.be/zMnKNHNfznE
Truman Assassination Attempt
https://youtu.be/upbvXCgHwJo In November 1950 two Puerto Rican pro-independence nationalists attempted to assassinate U.S. President Harry Truman. Both men were stopped before gaining entry to the house. One assassin and one police officer were killed by gunfire. Secret Service agents wounded the other assassin. President Truman was upstairs in Blair house (during the renovation of the White House) and not harmed. This was the second attempted assassination of President Truman. The first attempt occurred in 1947 when President Truman was sent a letter bomb containing powdered gelignite that police exploded experimentally. The Palestinian terrorist Lehi militant organization (AKA the Stern gang) later claimed responsibility.
https://youtu.be/ad9GhwKeNpI In October 1950 ROK and U.N. forces captured Pyongyang after the main forces of the (North) Korean People's Army had withdrawn to Kanggye. Source: Wikipedia With a rumor circulating that Pyongyang was their final objective in the war, morale among American troops was high —they would soon be heading home. Boston.com https://youtu.be/h9u7_W4T1Qo
https://youtu.be/KD_YRnuuKyY Al Jolson, born Asa Yoelson, was an American singer, comedian, and actor who lived from 1886-1950. In the 1920s, Jolson was immensely popular as America's highest-paid entertainer. In 1927 Jolson starred in The Jazz Singer, the first full feature film to have a sound track that included dialogue (though only the musical numbers and some select conversations were recorded for sound). Al Jolson entertained troops during WWII and the Korean War. He died shortly after returning home from performing for American troops in Korea in October 1950. Jolson's style was extroverted, sentimental and melodramatic as he popularized African-American music for white Americans who were otherwise not receptive to black performers. Often dubbed the king of "blackface" performers (a theatrical convention since the mid-19th century), Jolson unfortunately also popularized racial stereotypes. Source: Wikipedia https://youtu.be/PIaj7FNHnjQ
The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) was a fully functional hospital unit maintained by the U.S. Army Medical Corps in a combat zone. MASH units, established in August 1945, were deployed during the Korean War and later conflicts until 2006. The successor to the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital is the Combat Support Hospital. https://youtu.be/KoRFyr6cOWU The CBS TV comedy series MASH aired from 1972 to 1983. The series, derived from the 1970 feature film M*A*S*H, was, in turn, based on a 1968 novel by Richard Hooker's entitled MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors. https://youtu.be/8VEGEvDKkeM
Korea Blues – Fats Domino
Uncle Sam ain't no woman but he sure can take your manUncle Sam ain't no woman but he sure can take your manHe's taking them in the daylight to go to Korea and fightThe people over there are messed up, they are many very roughThe people over there are messed up, they are many very roughWe have to go there and show 'em what it means to be real toughSo pray for me baby I'll be thinkin' of you night and daySo pray for me baby I'll be thinkin' of you day and nightAnd with the help of the Maker every day will be allright Wikipedia Conscription in the United States (the draft) has been employed in all major conflicts including the American Revolution, Civil War, WWI, WWII, Korean War and the Vietnam War. America's first peacetime draft began in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. From 1940 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of conflict, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the United States Armed Forces that could not be filled through voluntary means. Source: Wikipedia
In late September 1950, after the Inchon landing, United Nations forces advanced slowly on Seoul against heavy, North Korean resistance. The North Korean Peoples Army, attempting to stall the UN offensive long enough to reinforce Seoul and withdraw troops from the south, launched a T-34 tank attack against advancing UN troops and a Yak bombing run on Inchon harbor. The North Korean tanks were destroyed and the Inchon bombing run did little damage. Source: Wikipedia U.S Marines firing at North Korean snipers in Seoul - September 1950. Wikipedia Entering Seoul, U.S. Marines encountered barricades and heavy resistance from North Korean machine guns, snipers and land mines as they fought house-to-house. After Seoul was recaptured, South Korean authorities summarily executed many individuals along with their families suspected of sympathizing with the North Korea invaders. These extra-judicial killings coincided with the Goyang Geunjeong Cave massacre of 153 civilians by police in the Goyang, Gyeonggi-do district.
King Solomon’s Mines
https://youtu.be/tmXgC7k-QB0 King Solomon's Mines was a popular novel written by the English adventure writer Sir H. Rider Haggard in 1885 that is often considered to be the origin of the lost world literary genre. The 1950 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film King Solomon's Mines starred Deborah Kerr, Stewart Granger and Richard Carlson.
Early Korean Air War
At the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States Air Force (USAF) had >1000 aircraft in the Pacific region. Immediately mustered against the North Korean invasion were F-80 Shooting Stars, F-82 Twin Mustangs, B-26 Invaders and B-29 Superfortresses. USAF aircraft were well-equipped and flew from many bases in Japan—out of North Korean reach. Douglas A-26 (designated B-26 between 1948 and 1965) Invader. - Wikipedia Additionally, air squadrons from Great Britain and Australia provided support for ground operations. At the onset of the Korean War the Republic of Korea Air Force had 1,800 personnel but only 22 aircraft. Korean Peoples Air Force. - Wikimedia The North Korean People's Air Force (KPAF) had 2000 personnel and 132 aircraft. From June 25 to July 20, 1950 North Korean aircraft waged a battle for air supremacy over South Korea. In the initial phase of the war, North Korean aircraft held air superiority over South Korea. However, several engagements over Seoul and Taejon ultimately ended in the destruction of the small KPAF. Despite unsuccessful UN ground action in the early stage of the Korean War, the air battle was successful for UN forces. Wikipedia After destruction of the small KPAF, the UN air force concentrated attacks on North Korean ground forces, inflicting heavy casualties. In addition, UN bombing of North Korean armor, supplies and ports, greatly hampered enemy efforts to penetrate the Pusan Perimeter. U.N. bombing continued relatively unhindered for six months of the war ~ until the ominous appearance of the Soviet-built MiG-15 fighter (presumably flying out of Manchuria). MiG-15. Wikimedia Commons
Hill 303 massacre
On August 17, 1950, on a hill above Waegwan, South Korea. Forty-one U.S Army prisoners of war were gunned down by troops of the North Korean Korean People's Army (KPA) during the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. During the Battle of Taegu, elements of the US 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division were surrounded by KPA troops crossing the Naktong River at Hill 303. Hill 303 Survivors - Wikipedia Most of the US troops escaped, but one platoon of mortar men misidentified KPA troops as Republic of Korea Army (ROK) reinforcements and was captured. KPA troops tried to move the American prisoners out of the battle, but were unable to do so because of a heavy U.S. counterattack. US forces eventually routed the North Koreans. But during their retreat, a KPA officer ordered the 41 American prisoners to be shot so they would not slow them down. Both sides confronted the massacre. US forces broadcast radio messages and dropped leaflets demanding the senior North Korean commanders be held responsible for the atrocity. KPA commanders laid out stricter guidelines for handling enemy captives. Source: Wikipedia
On September 15, 1950 U.S. Marines made a surprise amphibious landing at the strategic port of Incheon (formerly romanized as Inchŏn) on the west coast of Korea, about 100 miles south of the 38th parallel and 25 miles from Seoul. Although many among the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff had criticized the landing as too risky, United Nations Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur insisted on carrying out the bold landing. After the successful landing, American-led U.N. forces broke North Korean supply lines and pushed inland toward Communist-held Seoul. https://youtu.be/apJ_aMY03Sc
Peanuts Comic Strip
https://youtu.be/dKc8OTRBYXY Peanuts, an American comic strip, written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, ran from October 1950, to February 2000. 17,897 published Peanuts strips ran in over 2,600 newspapers. Translated into 21 languages, Peanuts had a readership of ~355 million in 75 countries. Source: Wikipedia https://youtu.be/AjX2VtqTpAU
Timetoast.com By September 1950 the North Korean Peoples Army (KPA) reached their farthest point of advance in South Korea. Although the KPA strength had been nearly cut in half and it lacked sufficient armor and supplies, the North Koreans reduced the area under control by United Nations forces to a 5,000-square-mile rectangle centered on the critical southeastern port of Pusan (Busan). https://youtu.be/MAvni45DVlY
https://youtu.be/BXYrOI4fOL0 Miles Dewey Davis III, (1926-1991) was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader and composer. In 1948, Davis formed a short-lived group with Gerry Mulligan, J.J. Johnson, Kenny Clarke, and Lee Konitz with arrangements that juxtaposed the flexible, improvisatory nature of bebop with a thickly textured orchestral sound. Tracks released by the group in 1949-50 changed the course of modern jazz and paved the way for the West Coast styles of the 1950s. Davis explored the trumpet’s middle register, experimenting with harmonies and rhythms and varying the phrasing of his improvisations. With the occasional exception of multi-note flurries, his melodic style was direct and un-ornamented, based on quarter notes and rich with inflections. The deliberation, pacing, and lyricism in his improvisations were striking.Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica https://youtu.be/g1VEifmf9Uw
Truman Seizes Railroads
https://youtu.be/6XI6CXrlNSo In August 1950, to prevent a pending strike during wartime, President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order directing the U.S. Army to seize control of America’s railroads. President Truman had previously intervened in post-war labor strikes. This time, however, America was at war and much of its economic and defense infrastructure was dependent upon the smooth functioning of railroads. In July 1950 settlement recommendations by an emergency board were rejected and, by August 25, a strike seemed imminent. Truman stated: "...governmental seizure [of the railroads] is imperative for the protection of American citizens as well as essential to the national defense and security of the Nation.” The railroad strike lasted until May 1952 when the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, the Order of Railway Conductors and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, accepted the administration’s terms and resumed work. Source: POLITICO
Korean War ~ Summer 1950
Well-trained and equipped, the North Korean People's Army swept rapidly south in the first phase of the Korean war. In contrast, the South's Republic of Korea forces were often disorganized and inclined to flee the battle field. http://www.emersonkent.com/ July 5, 1950The first U.S. Marines - leading the U.N. forces - joined battle shortly after landing on the Korean Peninsula. U.S. troops suffered heavy casualties and the four American divisions were driven back into a perimeter around the southern port city of Pusan. Pinterest
Task Force Smith
https://youtu.be/Qk4lKp1C3ls On July 5, 1950 the first engagement between United States forces and the North Korean People's Army (KPA) occurred near the city of Osan south of Seoul Korea.400 infantry men of Task Force Smith, supported by an artillery battery, were ordered to fight a rearguard action to delay the advancing KPA while additional U.S. troops arrived in Korea to form a defensive line to the south. Equipped only with a few 105 mm Howitzers, 2.36-in. rocket launchers and 57 mm recoilless rifles, Task Force Smith lacked effective weapons against the T-34 Soviet tanks of the KPA. History Central American Ground Forces Enter the Battle At 0816 the first American artillery fire of the Korean War hurtled through the air toward the North Korean tanks. The number two howitzer fired the first two rounds, and the other pieces then joined in the firing. The artillery took the tanks under fire at a range of approximately 4,000 yards, about 2,000 yards in front of the American infantry. The forward observer quickly adjusted the fire and shells began landing among the tanks. But the watching infantrymen saw the tanks keep on coming, undeterred by the exploding artillery shells. When the enemy tank column approached within 700 yards of the infantry position, the two recoilless rifles took it under fire. They scored direct hits, but apparently did not damage the tanks ... a bazooka from the ditch along the east side of the road fired twenty-two rockets at approximately fifteen yards' range against the rear of the tanks where their armor was weakest. Whether they were effective is doubtful. The two lead tanks, however, were stopped just through the pass when they came under direct fire of the single 105-mm. howitzer using HEAT ammunition.... The two damaged tanks pulled off to the side of the road, clearing the way for those following. One of the two caught fire and burned. Two men emerged from its turret with their hands up. A third jumped out with a burp gun in his hands and fired directly into a machine gun position, killing the assistant gunner. This unidentified machine gunner probably was the first American ground soldier killed in action in Korea. American fire killed the three North Koreans. The six rounds of HEAT ammunition at the forward gun were soon expended, leaving only the HE shells which ricocheted off the tanks. The third tank through the pass knocked out the forward gun and wounded one of its crew members. The tanks did not stop to engage the infantry; they merely fired on them as they came through. Following the first group of 8 tanks came others at short intervals, usually in groups of 4. These, too, went unhesitatingly through the infantry position and on down the road toward the artillery position. In all, there were 33 tanks in the column. The last passed through the infantry position by 0900, about an hour after the lead tanks had reached the saddle. In this hour, tank fire...
https://youtu.be/SKhyLCjIpvw SOURCE: Wikipedia Born Norma Jeane Mortenson in 1926, she began working as a model in 1944 using the name Jean Norman. By 1946, she had appeared on 33 magazine covers for publications such as Pageant, U.S. Camera, Laff, and Peek. In 1946 she was signed by 20th Century Fox, using the stage name Marilyn Monroe. She had bit parts in Dangerous Years (1947) and Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay! (1948). In 1948, with her hairline raised and hair bleached platinum blonde, she starred as a chorus girl in Ladies of the Chorus In 1949 she posed nude for photographer Tom Kelley. In 1950, after plastic surgery on her face, she had bit parts in Love Happy, A Ticket to Tomahawk, Right Cross and The Fireball. In 1950, she also had minor supporting roles in two critically-acclaimed films: Joseph Mankiewicz's All About Eve and John Huston's The Asphalt Jungle. PicClick
On June 25, 1950 the Korean People's Army (KPA) equipped with T-34 tanks and artillery support, advanced rapidly on the South Korea capital of Seoul. http://www.famousdaily.com/history/battle-of-seoul-north-korea-captures-seoul.html Sutori The Republic of Korea (ROK) Army, lacking both tanks and adequate anti-tank weapons could not stop the KPA advance. Additionally, South Korean forces blew up the bridge across the Han River, trapping their own soldiers and killing hundreds of refugees evacuating the city. Robert Neff Collection Capt. F. L. Scheiber/U.S. Army/Science Source By June 28, the KPA had captured Seoul. https://youtu.be/rk3mj3f5HQ0
Veterans Day was formerly known as Armistice Day, a U.S. legal holiday to honor the end of World War I on November 11, 1918. https://youtu.be/2A6HQtPWatc In 1938 U.S. legislation dedicated November 11 as a day to celebrate the cause of world peace— hereafter celebrated as Armistice Day. In 1954, after both WWII and the Korean War, the U.S. Congress amended the Act of 1938 by substituting the word "veterans" for the word "Armistice." November 11 became a day to honor American veterans of all wars. Veterans Day is distinct from Memorial Day, a U.S. public holiday in May. Veterans Day celebrates the service of all U.S. military veterans, while Memorial Day honors those who have died while in military service. Another military holiday, Armed Forces Day, occurs in May to honor both those who served in the U.S. military in the past and those who are presently serving.
Taiwan Strait Tension
https://youtu.be/wByvdYGfyiI Although U.S. policy in early 1950 was not directly poised to prevent a Communist Chinese invasion of the Nationalist Chinese stronghold on Taiwan, the outbreak of the Korean War changed the equation. On June 27, 1950, the United States Seventh Fleet sailed into the Taiwan Strait to prevent the Korean conflict from spreading south. The appearance of the Seventh Fleet caused the Chinese Communists to transfer troops poised for an invasion of Taiwan to the northern border of Korea. Source: Milestones: 1953–1960 - Office of the Historian Association for Diplomatic Studies & Training On 27 June 1950, President Truman issued the following statement: The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer independent nations and will now use armed invasion and war. It has defied the orders of the Security Council of the United Nations issued to preserve international peace and security. In these circumstances the occupation of Formosa by Communist forces would be a direct threat to the security of the Pacific area and to United States forces performing their lawful and necessary functions in that area. Accordingly, I have ordered the 7th Fleet to prevent any attack on Formosa. As a corollary of this action, I am calling upon the Chinese Government on Formosa to cease all air and sea operations against the mainland. The 7th Fleet will see that this is done. The determination of the future status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations.
INVASION OF SOUTH KOREA
On June 25, 1950 ~ 90,000 soldiers of the Korean People's Army (KPA), well-trained and equipped with modern tanks, trucks, artillery and small arms by the USSR, crossed the 38th parallel in eight divisions and an armored brigade to invade South Korea. https://youtu.be/-NA4NytWYT8 The 98,000-man Republic of Korea Army (ROK) was incompletely-trained and under-equipped with no tanks, inadequate artillery and few aircraft. Frank Praytor @ Stars & Stripes https://youtu.be/Ivf7UBMjDv0 Aided only by a 500-man U.S. Korean Military Advisory Group (KMAG), the ROK army was quickly overwhelmed as the KPA advanced rapidly toward Seoul. CBS News
Eve of Korean War
researchgate.net The breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s opened previously-closed archives that contained information on Soviet-North Korean-Chineserelations during the Cold War—of particular interest, correspondence between Josef Stalin, Mao Zedong and Kim Il Sung. ______________________________________________________________________________SOURCE: Neglected Questions on the “Forgotten War”: South Korea and the United States on the Eve of the Korean War It is well known that South Korean PresidentSyngman Rhee equaled his North Koreancounterpart’s ambitions to use military force toreunite his homeland, and that the UnitedStates was determined to prevent his doing soon his own. Photo by Richard Jones Contrary to traditional views that charged Stalin with initiating plans for North Korea’s southern attack, the documents portray Kim Il Sung as eager to initiate war with South Korea and Stalin as reluctant to give Kim the green light to attack. The war’s origins are thus rooted in Korean nationalist sentiment rather than as part of a Soviet-led global communist revolution. Britannica The documents also suggest that Stalin offered Kim his blessing to attack sometime in late 1949, but cautioned that the Soviet Union would not participate beyond supplying North Korea with weapons. As a precautionary step he urged the North Korean leader to approach Mao for any further assistance he needed. For an excellent discussion of the issues on the eve of the Korean War, read this article from the Asia-Pacific Journal: Neglected Questions on the “Forgotten War”: South Korea and the United States on the Eve of the Korean War
Dean Acheson ~ Pacific Defense
https://youtu.be/i9c4c6J9GfM In January 1950 U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson gave a speech to the National Press Club intended to outline the Pacific defense posture of the United States. He named Japan and the Philippines in the U.S. defense plan, but did not explicitly include Korea or the Republic of China on Taiwan. He further mentioned: “so far as the military security of other areas in the Pacific is concerned, it must be clear that no person can guarantee these areas against military attack.” In January 1950 , the U.S. Congress rejected a $60 million aid bill for South Korea. Some observers regarded Acheson's January 12, 1950 speech before the National Press Club to mean that the United States support for the government of South Korea was limited—suggesting the U.S. would not intervene if North Korea (assisted by the USSR) invaded the South. Soviet archives first opened in the 1980s however, found that the speech had little if any impact on Communist deliberations. New York Times, April 26,1995
The Martian Chronicles
The Martian Chronicles was published in 1950 by Ray Bradbury as a series of 27 connected short stories about humans fleeing a devastated earth to colonize Mars where they conflict with aboriginal Martians. In 1980 NBC produced the book as a television miniseries starring Rock Hudson, Darren McGavin, Bernadette Peters, Roddy McDowall, Fritz Weaver, Barry Morse, and Maria Schell. https://youtu.be/FUKPso0EH9Q
Kim Il-sung pre-Korean War
Kim Il-sung Kim Il-sung's life Before the Korean War Kim Il-sung’s life has been greatly mythologized by North Korean historians. After reviewing the literature (including Kim’s autobiography Reminiscences: With the Century) and interviewing Korean historians on my recent trip to Seoul and Vladivostok, here is my take on the actual life of the North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung leading up to the onset of the Korean War: Kim was born as Kim Sŏng-ju into a Presbyterian family in a village near Pyongyang Korea in 1912 Some consider the name he later assumed (Kim Il-sung) had previously been used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance named Kim Kyung-cheonBecause of relative famine and Kim’s father's involvement in anti-Japanese activities, the family moved to Manchuria in 1920 Kim attended middle school in China’s Jilin province until 1930 when he was jailed for underground Marxist activities Along with other Koreans, Kim joined the Chinese-led Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army (NEAJUA) in 1935 Kim was a bona fide resistance fighter, but not the main leader of anti-Japanese forces in Manchuria Sometime after 1935, Kim assumed the name Kim Il-sung (Hangul meaning = completed/finished/succeeded sun/day) In 1937, while commanding a few hundred men, his raid on Pochonbo, a small Japanese-held town on the Korean border, brought Kim military acclaim Kim Il-sung (Back row, 3rd from left ) in 1938 in command of the Sixth Division of the Second Directional Army in Jilin, China Japanese forces in Manchuria - Alchetron The Japanese, considering Kim an effective guerrilla leader, put a price on his head and labelled him “Tiger” In 1940, along with other Korean guerrillas, Kim escaped the increasingly-effective Japanese search and destroy forces by crossing the Amur River into the Primorsky Krai region of the Soviet Union Because Joseph Stalin had banished ethnic Koreans living in the area to central Asia in the 1930s, Koreans were not welcome in urban areas of Vladivostok and Khabarovsk at that time Kim and his troops were sent to the small town of Vyatskoye, 70 km north of Khabarovsk where they received indoctrination in Soviet Communist ideology and further military trainingAdditionally, the Soviets used Koreans fluent in Japanese for intelligence purposes—Kim Il Sung was fluent in Korean, Chinese and Japanese Vyatskoye Russia Kim Il-sung In 1942 Kim was appointed a Captain in the 88th Special Rifle Brigade of the Soviet ArmyComposed of three Chinese and one Korean batallion, the 88th Special Rifle Brigade was under the command of a Zhou Baozhong, former leader of the NEAJUAThe Korean Battalion of the 88th may have made some cross-border raids into Manchuria for reconnaissance and intelligence gathering from 1942-45, but the USSR was not at war with Japan at that time and Kim was not involved in any major engagements with Japanese military then Kim Il-sung 1945 The Soviets groomed Kim for leadership in postwar North Korea and sent him back by ship from Vladivostok in the fall of 1945 (the official North Korean story is that he remained in Manchuria leading...
Cost of Living
https://youtu.be/mzhUuMrkdcA In 1950: a new house cost $8,450.00 the average income per year was $3,210.00 a gallon of gas was 18 cents the average cost of new car was $1,510.00 A few more prices from the 50's and how much things costChrysler New Yorker $43471958 Chevrolet Corvette $3631Men's All Wool Suits $28.90Square dance Cotton Check Dress $3.29Electric Portable Singer Sewing Machine $19.90Ronson Electric Shaver $28.50Rib Roast 29 cents per poundRitz Crackers 32 centsRollaway Beds $14.95Ring 1 carat Diamond $399.00Mechanical Adding Machine $3.98 Source: The People History
This lovely, traditional Korean song is >600 years old. The refrain Ariyang... is apparently nonsensical. There are many versions of the lyrics reflecting love, loss, resistance and patriotism. Arirang, Arirang, Arariyo...Crossing over Arirang Pass.The one who abandoned meShall not walk even 4 kilometers before their feet hurt. Just as there are many stars in the clear sky, There are also many dreams in our heart. There, over there, that mountain is Baekdu Mountain, Where, even in the middle of winter days, flowers bloom. The tune has been sung by Korean guerrillas in Manchuria fighting Imperial Japanese forces, heart-broken patriots in Chosen (Korea) under Japanese rule and wistful, modern day Koreans North and South. Most interesting, is that people in Imperial Japan also loved the song and recorded many versions. Source: Arirang - Wikipedia Arirang is revered in both North and South Korea and is a bittersweet expression of love of country. Here is a North Korean version~ https://youtu.be/XXQgyvLzKPs Here is a modern South Korean version~ https://youtu.be/SHO3t1xayeo What a universal song. Even the U.S. Marines sing it! https://youtu.be/w1FMKeAKX8E
CIA Mind Control
https://youtu.be/NUW-frxo2X4 In 1950 the director of the U.S. Central Intelligence authorized Project BLUEBIRD to discover methods of: conditioning personnel to prevent unauthorized extraction of informationcontrol of an individual by the application of special interrogation techniquesmemory enhancementpreventing hostile control of CIA personnel In 1951 Project Artichoke was established to determine whether a person could be involuntarily made to perform an act of attempted assassination. Project Artichoke also studied: hypnosisforced morphine addiction and withdrawaluse of other chemicals (including LSD) to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states https://youtu.be/U1GUJMTmoMY In 1953 the MKUltra project used numerous methods to manipulate people's mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, and other forms of torture. https://youtu.be/b01DL8DTUGM
Armed Forces Day
https://youtu.be/x2y10XtqXTc In 1950 United States President Harry Truman issued a proclamation: "Armed Forces Day, Saturday, May 20, 1950, marks the first combined demonstration by America's defense team of its progress, under the National Security Act, towards the goal of readiness for any eventuality. It is the first parade of preparedness by the unified forces of our land, sea, and air defense." B-36 bombers flew over the capitals of every state10,000 troops and veterans marched in Washington, DC.More than 36,000 participated in a parade in New York CityParades and air shows were held across the country
https://youtu.be/IwDnUeCh35M 1950 Philadelphia Zoo TV commercial Zoo Parade, a popular Sunday afternoon TV show on NBC from 1950-57 was hosted by Zoo director Marlin Perkins. ~ The show was actually shot at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo (I couldn't find a short video). findagrave.com Marlin Perkins rose from temporary labor at the St. Louis Zoo to become zookeeper/TV safari guide on Zoo Parade and ultimately one of America's best-known zoologists on the Emmy-awarded TV show Wild Kingdom from 1963-88. Throughout his career, Perkins travelled through the world's jungles, veldts and deserts to protect endangered species and enlighten TV viewers about animals that are feared or killed because of superstition.
https://youtu.be/mxmsBePZwHY In January 1950, the German-born physicist Klaus Fuchs, working for the British mission in the Manhattan Project, was arrested for passing key documents to the Soviets throughout WWII. Fuchs identified his courier as the American Harry Gold. Gold, arrested in May 1950, then identified David Greenglass as an additional source. In June 1950, under arrest by the FBI, Greenglass confessed to his courier role and also claimed his sister Ethel's husband Julius Rosenberg had passed secrets to the Soviets. Julius Rosenberg was arrested on suspicion of espionage in June 1950; his wife Ethel was arrested in August 1950. Another accused conspirator, Morton Sobell, fled but was arrested by U.S. forces in Mexico.In March 1951, the Rosenbergs were convicted of espionage and sentenced to death. After a stay of execution and a world-wide campaign for clemency, the Rosenbergs were executed in June 1953. SOURCE: Wikipedia
In 1950 the mummified corpse of the Tollund Man who lived during the 4th century BC was found in a bog on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark. Tollund Man's body was so well-preserved that it was first thought to be that of a recent murder victim. Although initially thought to be a hanged criminal, subsequent scholarship suggests that he was a human sacrifice because of the position of his body and closed eyes and mouth.
https://youtu.be/l6x7fzcx5oc Beginning in early 1950, the newly-established People's Republic of China (PRC) Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou En-lai met with Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and Foreign Minister Andrei Vyshinsky in Moscow to discuss an alliance for mutual assistance and defense. In the treaty, the USSR agreed to provide a $300 million and return control to the PRC of a major railroad and the Manchurian cities of Port Arthur (Lüshun Port) and Dairen (Dailian) which had been seized by Russian forces near the end of WWII. The mutual defense section of the agreement primarily concerned any future aggression by Japan or "any other state" directly or indirectly associated with Japan. Zhou En-lai declared that the linking of the two Communist nations created a force that was “impossible to defeat.” Many U.S. commentators saw the treaty as proof that Communism was a monolithic movement directed primarily by the Kremlin. An article in the New York Times referred to the PRC as a Soviet “satellite.”
Cigarettes Linked to Cancer
https://youtu.be/gCMzjJjuxQI 1949 Camel ad In 1950 The Journal of the American Medical Association published two articles linking smoking and cancer: Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiological Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Study of Six Hundred and Eighty-Four Proved Cases by E.L. Wynder and Dr. E.A. GrahamCancer and Tobacco Smoking: A Preliminary Report" was authored by M.L. Levin, H. Goldstein and P. R. GerhardtSince then a relationship between smoking and many other conditions has been established. Internal tobacco industry documents released through litigation and whistleblowers has subsequently revealed major corporate deceit in addressing the public regarding the dangers of smoking. https://youtu.be/MbHMZ6WSzlc John Wayne contracted cancer twice: in 1964, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and had his left lung removed, and in 1979 he contracted stomach cancer, which took his life. He felt his lung cancer was the result of his 5-pack-a-day, unfiltered cigarette habit. ~ Medical Bag In 1964 a landmark U.S. Surgeon Generals' smoking and health report linked smoking cigarettes with dangerous health effects, including lung cancer and heart disease. Since that time, the rate of cigarette smoking among Americans has been dramatically reduced.
Understanding Post-WWII East Asia
East Asia ~ Wikimedia I am currently on a trip to Seoul, Vladivostok and Tokyo to research locations for my upcoming historical-fiction novel covering the years 1940-1950. My protagonists are: a young Korean physician, trained in the Imperial Japanese medical system in colonial Korea (Chōsen), who joins anti-Japanese guerrillas in Manchuria and ultimately, escapes into Russiaa US Army officer (Nick from my first book Enemy in the Mirror: Love and Fury in the Pacific War), stationed at MacArthur's headquarters in occupied Japan, who is abruptly plunged into the battle for Korea Britannica My current understanding of this post-WWII epoch (1940-1950) is this: ~In an effort to reunite the country, both North Korea and South Korea were authoritarian states that assumed very aggressive military postures in the late 1940s—both claim the other actually started the war. ~Just recovering from the devastation of World War II, the USSR was not in favor of precipitating nor encouraging new wars in Asia—nevertheless, the Soviets could not turn their back on emerging Communist states. Although a few Soviet pilots participated in the war, Russian involvement in the Korean War was mainly the provision of equipment, training and technical support. ~ The United States, fearing South Korean President Syngman Rhee would start a war, restricted rearmament of the South to defensive efforts and provided a small advisory force for the Korean military. Deeply immersed in Cold War ideology, the U.S. government was convinced the USSR was directly behind all efforts to extend Communism globally. Fearing a "domino effect" in East Asia, the U.S. government saw no alternative but direct military intervention when North Korea invaded the South. ~ Communist China, emerging from a long civil war (temporarily interrupted by common cause against Imperial Japan) was sympathetic to North Korea but, like the USSR, also not wanting to get involved in a new war. Grateful to Koreans for their assistance in the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, Communist China felt an obligation to support North Korea, but resisted becoming involved in the war—until American troops were at the Yalu River and China responded with massive armed force. MOAweb Dear Reader: Any comments or alternative explanations would be greatly appreciated
McMinnvile Oregon UFO - Wikipedia In May 1950 photographs of UFOs taken on a farm near McMinnville, Oregon were published in Life magazine and nationwide newspapers. Although some skeptics believe UFOs are a hoax, many ufologists argue that the photos are genuine, and show an unidentified object in the sky. Newsweek magazine devised the following UFO Sighting credibility scale: One point for sightings with multiple witnessesAdditional point for an expert witness (a pilot, air traffic controller, military or government official)One point for sightings of an object <500 feet awayOne point for picture evidenceAdditional point for film of a moving UFOAdditional point for flight inconsistent with flight as humans know it.Two points for a physical effect (e.g., car light breaks, extreme heat, scorch marks on ground)Three points for seeing an animated pilot Minus three points if military/government body discredits sighting This book, reviewing startling reports from qualified observers such as pilots, generals and government officials convinces me there is real substance in many UFO reports. https://youtu.be/S4PYI6TzqYk
USSR Repatriates German POWs
https://youtu.be/5Skoh6n2SB4 In 1950, while releasing 17,538 German soldiers, the Soviet Union claimed it had completed repatriation of all WWII German POWs numbering 1,939,063. Since the Russian TASS news agency had reported 3.5 million German POWs held in the USSR in 1945, West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer demanded to know what had happened to >1.5 million still missing. The U.S. State Department described the Soviet claim as "fantastic and absurd" while estimating 200,000 German POWs were still in Soviet labor camps. Source: German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Nuclear “Doom” Towns
https://youtu.be/wgpo0qAfwDk In the 1950s, nuclear testing began at the Nevada National Security Site with nuclear bombs mounted on top of a 1500 foot detonation tower so the fireball wouldn't damage the monitoring equipment. "Doom" towns were assembled with shops, gas stations, and homes made of brick and wood . After the blast ~The Atlantic Building interiors held life-size, family mannequins wearing various types of clothing to evaluate how different fabrics would be affected during the energy bursts and extreme heat.
Beat the Clock
https://youtu.be/H0cBnWgZOKg First televised by CBS in 1950, Beat the Clock was an American television game show that required its contestants to accomplish various stunts within 60 seconds. Contestants were chosen from the studio audience and usually were married couples. The show had several sponsors over its run, with the most longstanding being the electronics company Sylvania. After its first run ended in 1961, Beat the Clock was revived several times over the years. Its most recent revival began on Universal Kids on February 6, 2018. https://youtu.be/bwKErX9NyHU
Brittanica.com By the end of 1949, most of mainland China was under Communist control. Official Communist figures counted some 1.5 million dead and wounded among the People’s Liberation Army. ~600,000 Nationalists troops were killed in combat, while roughly three times that many defected to the Communists. Nearly 7 million Nationalist troops were captured during four years of combat. Approximately 5 million civilians died as a result of combat, famine, and disease. As they steadily lost ground to the Communist forces, Chinese Nationalist leaders left mainland China for the island of Taiwan, where they established their new capital. In 1542 Portuguese sailors named the uncharted island (福爾摩沙) Ilha Formosa (beautiful island). With the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture in 1684, the current Chinese name Taiwan (臺灣) became official. https://youtu.be/I4Sj7OP-x48
American Shopping Mall
Pinterest In April 1950 Northgate Center, the first urban shopping mall, was opened in Seattle.Originally an open air complex where the stores faced each other, Northgate began adding a roof over the concourse in 1962 and was completely enclosed by 1974. https://youtu.be/CZyMiyYZr4Y Today.com In August 2019 Seattle’s premiere retailer, Nordstrom, an original Mall tenant, chose to leave Northgate. One reason for the Nordstrom closure is the National Hockey League Seattle plans to turn part of the area into its headquarters—but the move is widely interpreted as signaling the end of the suburban shopping mall era that began in Seattle in 1950. Eventually, the American fascination with malls hit a feverish peak—in 1990, 19 new malls opened across America. But beginning in the late 1990s, the culture that once fed the American mall started to change. Shopping centers that hadn't been renovated in years began to show signs of wear and tear, and the middle-aged, middle-class shoppers that once flooded their shops began to disappear, turning the once sterile suburban shopping centers into perceived havens for crime. Increasingly rundown and redundant, malls started turning into ghost towns—first losing shoppers and then losing stores. Today, the vacancy rate in America's regional malls hovers around 7.9 percent; at its peak, in 2011, vacancy at regional malls was 9.4 percent. Source: The Smithsonian https://youtu.be/s0g1ZpXypo0
NSC 68 ~ No Preventive War
https://youtu.be/7ugz3eS1R6Q NSC 68 the United States Objectives and Programs for National Security was issued by U.S. President Truman's National Security Council in April 1950. Classified top secret until 1975, the document defined American foreign policy during the Truman presidency designed to "assure the integrity and vitality of our free society." NSC 68 stated the Soviet Union's fundamental design was "the complete subversion or forcible destruction of the machinery of government and structure of society in the countries of the non-Soviet world." NSC 68 ruled out a pre-emptive U.S. nuclear strike against the USSR—but concluded that a rapid and sustained build-up of the political, economic and military strength of the free world was necessary to "frustrate the Kremlin design of a world dominated by its will."
First Black NBA Player
https://youtu.be/08IK0FjcPss In 1950 Chuck Cooper an All-American basketball player from Duquesne University (a private Catholic school in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania) was selected in the second round by the Boston Celtics. Cooper thus became the first African-American to play in the professional National Basketball Association league. After college, Cooper first signed onto the Harlem Globetrotters, but in April 1950, was drafted into the NBA when the Celtics chose him on the 14th overall pick. Later in the draft, the Washington Capitols, a charter team in the Basketball Association of America (forerunner of the NBA), selected Earl Lloyd and Harold Hunter. https://youtu.be/6mgcAOLm2sI
https://youtu.be/e7hpZbGd2Uw In 1950, the first public demonstration of the RCA system for color television, the all electronic tri-color picture tube, was made at a press conference in Washington, DC. The RCA system was eventually accepted by the Federal Communications Commission over a competing system designed by CBS, and became the standard for broadcasting.
U.S. Navy Plane Shot Down
Consolidated Vultee PB4Y-2 Privateer In April 1950, Soviet fighters shot down a US Navy PB4Y-2 Privateer patrol bomber over the Baltic Sea. At the time, Privateers were used by the US Navy for signals intelligence flights off of the coast of the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. The Soviet Foreign Ministry acknowledged the attack, but stated the aircraft was flying in Soviet airspace, and had fired on Soviet fighters when they attempted to signal it to land. The Soviet government also stated it had no information about survivors from this flight. American search and rescue efforts were unsuccessful, but two unmanned life rafts and some wreckage were eventually recovered. The United States maintained that the crew members were captured and held in Soviet Gulags until their death. The Soviets denied this. Source: Remembering Crew Members of U.S. Navy PB4Y-2 Shoot Down, April 8, 1950 – And Shocking Cold War Case Study – Station HYPO https://youtu.be/sPvB76l1AQE
Father of the Bride
https://youtu.be/ok7pNklkNhA IN 1950 director Vincente Minelli's comedy Father of the Bride (adapted from a book of the same title by Edward Streeter) told the story of a man (Spencer Tracy) dealing with his daughter's upcoming wedding. The cast included Joan Bennett, Elizabeth Taylor, Don Taylor, Billie Burke and Leo G. Carroll. Father of the Bride was one of the top grossing films of the year and received Academy Award nominations for best leading actor, best picture and best screenplay. Steve Martin and Diane Keaton starred in the 1991 version Father of the Bride and its 1995 sequel Father of the Bride-Part 2. https://youtu.be/o-JEkllZPDE
There Will Come Soft Rains
https://youtu.be/bv_D39zKZzc In May 1950, at the height of the Cold War, science fiction writer Ray Bradbury published the short story There Will Come Soft Rains in Collier's magazine. Later that year the story was included in The Martian Chronicles . Plot Summary: An overnight nuclear catastrophe desolates a city in California except for a single preserved house where the daily routine continues – automatic systems within the home prepare breakfast, clean the house, make beds, wash dishes, and address the former residents without any knowledge of their current state as burnt silhouettes on one of the walls. In spite of the homeowners' evident deaths, the house's systems zealously uphold its sanctity, frightening off surviving birds by closing the window shutters. One afternoon, a dog is allowed into the house when it is recognized as the family pet, but it soon dies. That evening, the house recites to the absent hostess her favorite poem, "There Will Come Soft Rains" by Sara Teasdale. A kitchen fire spreads throughout the house. Although systems desperately attempt to salvage the house, it burns to the ground overnight. At dawn a voice from the lone surviving wall endlessly repeats the time and date. https://youtu.be/rGW48EItyco
On May Day 1950 fake Communists took over Mosinee Wisconsin. Conceived by John Decker, a WWII veteran lawyer, and backed by the American Legion, the event was intended to highlight what liberties Americans would lose in an actual Communist takeover. picclick.com Ironically, the event planned for the traditional May Day worker's holiday, was joined by American Communist Party members who distributed issues of the Daily Worker around town asking: “So this is supposed to be communism; says who?”
In May 1950 the magazine Astounding Science Fiction published Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health by L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics divides the mind into: (1) the conscious analytical mind (2) the subconscious reactive mind (3) the somatic mind Scientologists believe the reactive mind interferes with a person's ethics, awareness, happiness, and sanity. Scientology auditors employ a procedure utilizing an e-meter while asking questions to determine the content of the reactive mind. https://youtu.be/rDyNoativPA Scientology procedures and tactics (including intimidation of critics) are highly controversial.Controversies include Scientology's stance on psychiatry, its legitimacy as a religion, its aggressive attitude against critics, allegations of mistreatment of members, its predatory financial practices and perceived exploitative practices. https://youtu.be/Uraz0CExF2E
B-36 Crash~British Columbia
https://youtu.be/uLnagDIlfZQ In February 1950 a US Air Force B-36 crashed near the coast of northern British Columbia during a simulated nuclear attack on San Francisco. A Mark 4 nuclear bomb, which lacked the plutonium core needed for a nuclear blast, was dropped over the ocean before the plane crashed. 12 of 17 men on board survived. Wikipedia The Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" was a strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force from 1949 to 1959.The largest mass-produced, piston-engine aircraft ever built, the B-36 was the first bomber capable of delivering U.S. nuclear weapons over a range of 10,000 mi (16,000 km) without refuelling. Entering service in 1948, the B-36 was the primary nuclear weapons bomber of Strategic Air Command (SAC) until it was replaced by the jet-powered Boeing B-52 Stratofortress in 1955. In 2016 a Canadian diver apparently recovered the bomb https://youtu.be/rFZXoV988EI
Mao and Stalin
Transcripts of the December 1949 and January 1950 sessions between Mao Tse-tung and Joseph Stalin were obtained from Soviet archives by the New York Times in 1995, Moscow December 1949: The first meeting between Mao Tse-tung and Joseph Stalin took place only months after Mao's revolutionary army had taken control of China. Mao asked Stalin to send "volunteer" pilots or secret military detachments to speed up the conquest of Formosa (Taiwan). Stalin only agreed to consider it. Wikipedia Moscow February 1950 - Joseph Stalin and Mao Tse-tung signed a mutual defense treaty which opened what the United States saw as a new front in the cold war. But the new records and recently released documents from Chinese archives suggest that the alliance did not have a strong foundation and may have been foredoomed.
When the Japanese invasion of Asia threatened America’s rubber supply during World War II, chemists at General Electric began looking for a synthetic substitute. James Wright stumbled upon ... a stretchy material that withstood decay and bounced 25 percent higher than rubber. When left untouched, this “solid liquid” flowed in slow motion and when struck sharply, it broke into pieces. Wright failed to find a wartime use for the goofy goo. Afterward, this “bouncing putty” or “nutty putty” amused guests at parties but did little else until toy marketer Peter Hodgson decided to list it as a novelty ...for a dollar, just in time for Easter. After a New Yorker article featured Silly Putty in 1950, orders topped 250,000 in three days. Millions have sold every year since...Astronauts even took it aboard Apollo 8 to stick down tools in zero gravity! Source: National Toy Hall of Fame
FBI Ten Most Wanted List
https://youtu.be/nWgn0lb9q3A In March 1950 the FBI officially released a list of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives designed to increase law enforcement's ability to capture dangerous fugitives. If fugitives were captured, died, had charges dropped or were no longer considered a dangerous menace to society, the FBI removed them from the Ten Most Wanted List and replaced them with a new entry. As of 2018, the FBI had featured a total of 519 criminals in the 10 Most Wanted rundown. The Bureau says that 486 of those individuals were eventually captured, with the publicity of the list being a key reason. Of those 486, 162 were apprehended based on information shared by a tip. ~11 Facts About the FBI's 10 Most Wanted List
Einstein Warns of Arms Race
https://youtu.be/K4MjwIFoPn0 Transcript: The Eleanor Roosevelt Show." NBC Radio February 1950 ALBERT EINSTEIN (Physicist): ... The idea of achieving security through national armament is, at the present state of military technique, a disastrous illusion. On the part of the U.S.A. this illusion has been particularly fostered by the fact that this country succeeded first in producing an atomic bomb. The belief seemed to prevail that in the end it would be possible to achieve decisive military superiority... This mechanistic, technical-military psychological attitude has had its inevitable consequences. Every single act in foreign policy is governed exclusively by one viewpoint: how do we have to act in order to achieve utmost superiority over the opponent in case of war? Establishing military bases at all possible strategically important points on the globe. Arming and economic strengthening of potential allies. Within the country: concentration of tremendous financial power in the hands of the military; militarization of the youth; close supervision of the loyalty of the citizens, in particular, of the civil servants, by a police force growing more conspicuous every day. Intimidation of people of independent political thinking. Subtle indoctrination of the public by radio, press, and schools. Growing restriction of the range of public information under the pressure of military secrecy. The armament race between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., originally supposed to be a preventive measure, assumes hysterical character. On both sides, the means to mass destruction are perfected with feverish haste - behind the respective walls of secrecy. The hydrogen bomb appears on the public horizon as a probably attainable goal. Its accelerated development has been solemnly proclaimed by the President. If it is successful, radioactive poisoning of the atmosphere and hence annihilation of any life on earth has been brought within the range of technical possibilities. The ghostlike character of this development lies in its apparently compulsory trend. Every step appears as the unavoidable consequence of the preceding one. In the end, there beckons more and more clearly general annihilation. Is there any way out of this impasse created by man himself? All of us, and particularly those who are responsible for the attitude of the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., should realize that we may have vanquished an external enemy, but have been incapable of getting rid of the mentality created by the war. It is impossible to achieve peace as long as every single action is taken with a possible future conflict in view. The leading point of view of all political action should therefore be: what can we do to bring about a peaceful coexistence and even loyal cooperation of the nations? The first problem is to do away with mutual fear and distrust. Solemn renunciation of violence (not only with respect to means of mass destruction) is undoubtedly necessary. Such renunciation, however, can be effective only if at the same time a supranational judicial and executive body is set up empowered to decide questions of immediate concern to the security of the nations. Even a declaration of...
Radio Free Europe
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4pQh2PjdziQ&t=65s Headquartered in Munich Germany, Radio Free Europe was founded as an anti-communist propaganda platform in 1949 by the National Committee for a Free Europe (a CIA front organization). Although clearly Western propaganda, Radio Free Europe provided a counterpoint to monolithic Communist media and attracted many listeners in Soviet bloc countries. Aware of its appeal, Communist governments frequently infiltrated Radio Free Europe headquarters, and regularly jammed its signals. https://youtu.be/fHzxjxtnXSo In the post Cold War era, Radio Free Europe continues to broadcast from Prague providing news and information to countries where independent media reporting is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed.
https://youtu.be/PUwmA3Q0_OE YearTotal world population(mid-year figures)Ten-year growthrate (%)19502,556,000,05318.9%19603,039,451,02322.019703,706,618,16320.219804,453,831,71418.519905,278,639,78915.220006,082,966,42912.6201016,848,932,92910.7202017,584,821,1448.7203018,246,619,3417.3204018,850,045,8895.6205019,346,399,468— Projected.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Database. SEPT. 6, 2018 — According to the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2017 National Population Projections by 2030, all baby boomers will be older than age 65. This will expand the size of the older population so that 1 in every 5 residents will be retirement age. By 2035, there will be 78.0 million people 65 years and older compared to 76.7 million (previously 76.4 million) under the age of 18.
First Kidney Transplant
https://youtu.be/EP9gnlmEyo8 In June 1950 Dr. Richard Lawler performed the first successful kidney transplantation. The donor kidney was removed from a patient who had died of cirrhosis of the liver. The recipient was a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, (PKD), a genetic disorder with multiple fluid-filled cysts typically in both kidneys.Transplantation was risky but the only real option for survival for the patient, since renal dialysis was not yet widely available. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/polycystic-kidney-disease/what-is-pkd The transplanted kidney functioned for ~ 53 days. 10 months after transplantation it was rejected and removed. With PKD in both of her kidneys, the patient's remaining kidney functioned at ~10%, enabling her to live another 5 years when she died of unrelated cardiac disease. This first kidney transplantation was conducted prior to development of immunosuppressant drugs and tissue typing which would have helped prevent organ rejection.
https://youtu.be/3FlVhQTIL1Q Sponsored by Lipton Tea, Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts was broadcast on CBS radio and television from 1946 until 1958. Godfrey was also hosting Arthur Godfrey and His Friends at the same time. Arthur Godfrey delivered commercials in a laid-back manner and often spoke irreverently about subjects that came up on his show. His easygoing style and dry wit attracted a strong following for several years. https://youtu.be/vAixx8G2wzU Some talent featured on Godfrey's show, such as the McGuire Sisters, went on to successful careers. https://youtu.be/TRSAbWIi478
Diners Club Card
https://youtu.be/iR5QYkdiaq4 In February 1950 the Diners Club issued the first credit card which only allowed charges at restaurants. By the end of the year, Diners Club had 20,000 members. In 1950 the company charged participating establishments 7% and billed cardholders $5 per year. By the mid-1960s, Diners Club had 1.3 million cardholders. Diners Club International was acquired by Citigroup in 1981. In 2008, Discover Financial Services purchased Diners Club International from Citibank for $165 million. Average Credit Card Processing Fees 2019The average credit card processing cost for a retail business where cards are swiped is roughly 1.95% – 2% for Visa, Mastercard, and Discover transactions. The average cost for card-not-present businesses, such as online shops, is roughly 2.30% – 2.50%.
U.S. Reveals H-Bomb Plans
In 1949 the United States had lost its nuclear supremacy when the Soviet Union successfully detonated an atomic bomb at their test site in Kazakhstan. https://youtu.be/ZQOZp4ThymU USSR conducts its first atomic bomb test - 1949 Several weeks after a successful Soviet atomic bomb test, Klaus Fuchs, a scientist in the U.S. nuclear program, was discovered spying for the Soviet Union. These two events, and the fact that the USSR had access to American research information regarding the construction of the hydrogen bomb, led Truman to make this public announcement on January 31, 1950: “It is part of my responsibility as commander in chief of the Armed Forces to see to it that our country is able to defend itself against any possible aggressor,” Truman said. “Accordingly, I have directed the Atomic Energy Commission to continue its work on all forms of atomic weapons, including the so-called hydrogen or superbomb. Like all other work in the field of atomic weapons, it is being and will be carried forward on a basis consistent with the overall objectives of our program for peace and security.” Source: Politico
Klaus Fuchs Atomic Spy
https://youtu.be/mqQ5_Na8DIc The German theoretical physicist Klaus Fuchs helped develop the first effective atomic bomb at Los Alamos during the WWII Manhattan Project. German born, Fuchs fled Nazi Germany and became a British citizen in August 1942. As a long-time Communist sympathizer, Fuchs soon began providing Soviet KGB operatives with classified information on the progress of Britain’s atomic energy research. In 1943, Fuchs went to Columbia University in New York with a British delegation of scientists to work on the Manhattan Project. In 1944 he began releasing classified information to a KGB agent in America. In August 1944 Fuchs was transferred to Los Alamos where he calculated the approximate energy yield of an atomic explosion, and specialized in researching implosion methods. In addition to secrets regarding the American atomic bomb project, Fuchs also passed detailed information about the hydrogen bomb to the Soviets. At the end of the war, Fuchs returned to England and continued his work on the British atomic bomb project. In 1949 decrypted cables from the U. S. Army Signal Intelligence Service revealed Fuchs was a Soviet spy. Fuchs was arrested in January 1950 and charged with violating Britain's Official Secrets Act. After his testimony led to the arrests of KGB agents (including Julius and Ethel Rosenberg) he was released after nine of his 14 year prison sentence. In 1959 Fuchs returned to the (East) German Democratic Republic as Deputy Director of the Central Institute for Nuclear Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf laboratory. In 1979 he received the Karl Marx Medal of Honor.
https://youtu.be/YChfpVD5xpk PROCLAMATION 2889 - May 22, 1950 PRAYER FOR PEACE, MEMORIAL DAY Since war is the world's most terrible scourge, we should do all in our power to prevent its recurrence.It was the hope of mankind that with the cessation of hostilities of World War II the way would be open to founding a permanent peace. Instead, that war has left the world in a state of continued unrest. Accordingly, we feel the need of turning in humble suppliance to Almighty God for help and guidance.In recognition of this need, the Congress has fittingly provided, in a joint resolution which I approved on May 11, 1950, that Memorial Day, which has long been set aside for paying tribute to those who lost their lives in war, shall henceforth be dedicated also as a day for Nation-wide prayer for permanent peace. The Congress has also requested that the President issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe Memorial Day in that manner.NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, pursuant to the aforementioned resolution, do hereby proclaim Memorial Day, Tuesday, May 30, 1950, and each succeeding Memorial Day, as a day of prayer for permanent peace. And I designate the hour beginning at eleven o'clock in the morning of that day, Eastern Daylight Saving Time, as a period in which all our people may unite in prayer, each in accordance with his own religious faith, for divine aid in bringing enduring peace to a troubled world.I also request the agencies of the press, radio, television, and other media of public information to join in the observance of that day and of the specified hour by announcements and programs designed to unite the Nation in a universal prayer for permanent peace.IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed.DONE at the City of Washington this 22nd day of May in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and fifty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and seventy-fourth. [SEAL]HARRY S. TRUMAN Here is an interesting archival collection of NY Times Memorial Day articles since WWI: 100 Years of Memorial Day Commemorations
Storm Clouds ~ U.S. & China
https://youtu.be/61dGhZPzSxs Australian Associated Press - January 15, 1950 Despite British recognition of the new regime, Communist seizure of U.S. consular property in Beijing prompted the United States to recall all consular officials from China in January 1950. Some background In August 1949 the U.S. Department of State issued the China White Paper, which stated that the United States had stayed out of the Chinese civil war because it neither should nor could have influenced the outcome. In October 1949, after the Nationalists were driven from mainland China, Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Shortly before the proclamation of the new Chinese government, U.S. Ambassador John Leighton Stuart met with Communist leaders to discuss U.S. recognition of the the new regime. Further negotiations faltered when Mao announced his intention to lean towards the side of the Soviet Union. Source: https://history.state.gov/countries/issues/china-us-relations Vyacheslav Molotov Mao Zedong
For the first time, the 1950 U.S. census counted a population in the United States >150 million people. State rankings RankStatePopulation1New York14,830,1922California10,586,2233Pennsylvania10,498,0124Illinois8,712,1765Ohio7,946,6276Texas7,748,0007Michigan6,421,0008New Jersey4,860,0009Massachusetts4,690,00010North Carolina4,060,00011Indiana3,952,00012Missouri3,946,00013Georgia3,451,00014Wisconsin3,449,00015Tennessee3,304,00016Virginia3,262,00017Alabama3,060,00018Minnesota2,995,00019Kentucky2,957,00020Florida2,821,00021Louisiana2,701,00022Iowa2,621,00023Washington2,386,00024Maryland2,376,00025Oklahoma2,193,00026Mississippi2,169,00027South Carolina2,119,00028Connecticut2,007,28029West Virginia2,006,00030Kansas1,915,00031Arkansas1,906,00032Oregon1,532,00033Colorado1,337,00034Nebraska1,324,00035Maine911,000xDistrict of Columbia814,00036Rhode Island779,00037Arizona756,00038Utah696,00039New Mexico687,00040South Dakota652,00041North Dakota616,00042Montana598,00043Idaho592,00044New Hampshire531,000xHawaii491,00045Vermont377,00046Delaware321,00047Wyoming292,00048Nevada162,000xAlaska138,000 City rankings RankCityStatePopulationRegion (2016)01New YorkNew York7,891,957Northeast02ChicagoIllinois3,620,962Midwest03PhiladelphiaPennsylvania2,071,605Northeast04Los AngelesCalifornia1,970,358West05DetroitMichigan1,849,568Midwest06BaltimoreMaryland949,708South07ClevelandOhio914,808Midwest08St. LouisMissouri856,796Midwest09WashingtonDistrict of Columbia802,178South10BostonMassachusetts801,444Northeast11San FranciscoCalifornia775,357West12PittsburghPennsylvania676,806Northeast13MilwaukeeWisconsin637,392Midwest14HoustonTexas596,163South15BuffaloNew York580,132Northeast16New OrleansLouisiana570,445South17MinneapolisMinnesota521,718Midwest18CincinnatiOhio503,998Midwest19SeattleWashington467,591West20Kansas CityMissouri456,622Midwest21NewarkNew Jersey438,776Northeast22DallasTexas434,462South23IndianapolisIndiana427,173Midwest24DenverColorado415,786West25San AntonioTexas408,442South26MemphisTennessee396,000South27OaklandCalifornia384,575West28ColumbusOhio375,901Midwest29PortlandOregon373,628West30LouisvilleKentucky369,129South31San DiegoCalifornia334,387West32RochesterNew York332,488Northeast33AtlantaGeorgia331,314South34BirminghamAlabama326,037South35Saint PaulMinnesota311,349Midwest36ToledoOhio303,616Midwest37Jersey CityNew Jersey299,017Northeast38Fort WorthTexas278,778South39AkronOhio274,605Midwest40OmahaNebraska251,117Midwest41Long BeachCalifornia250,767West42MiamiFlorida249,276South43ProvidenceRhode Island248,674Northeast44DaytonOhio243,872Midwest45Oklahoma CityOklahoma243,504South46RichmondVirginia230,310South47SyracuseNew York220,583Northeast48NorfolkVirginia213,513South49JacksonvilleFlorida204,517South50WorcesterMassachusetts203,486Northeast51TulsaOklahoma182,740South52Salt Lake CityUtah182,121West53Des MoinesIowa177,965Midwest54HartfordConnecticut177,397Northeast55Grand RapidsMichigan176,515Midwest56NashvilleTennessee174,307South57YoungstownOhio168,330Midwest58WichitaKansas168,279Midwest59New HavenConnecticut164,443Northeast60FlintMichigan163,143Midwest61SpringfieldMassachusetts162,399Northeast62SpokaneWashington161,721West63BridgeportConnecticut158,709Northeast64YonkersNew York152,798Northeast65TacomaWashington143,673West66PatersonNew Jersey139,336Northeast67SacramentoCalifornia137,572West68ArlingtonVirginia135,449South69AlbanyNew York134,995Northeast70CharlotteNorth Carolina134,042South71GaryIndiana133,911Midwest72Fort WayneIndiana133,607Midwest73AustinTexas132,459South74ChattanoogaTennessee131,041South75EriePennsylvania130,803Northeast76El PasoTexas130,485South77Kansas CityKansas129,553Midwest78MobileAlabama129,009South79EvansvilleIndiana128,636Midwest80TrentonNew Jersey128,009Northeast81ShreveportLouisiana127,206South82Baton RougeLouisiana125,629South83ScrantonPennsylvania125,536Northeast84KnoxvilleTennessee124,769South85TampaFlorida124,681South86CamdenNew Jersey124,555Northeast87CambridgeMassachusetts120,740Northeast88SavannahGeorgia119,638South89CantonOhio116,912Midwest90South BendIndiana115,911Midwest91BerkeleyCalifornia113,805West92ElizabethNew Jersey112,817Northeast93Fall RiverMassachusetts111,963Northeast94PeoriaIllinois111,856Midwest95WilmingtonDelaware110,356South96ReadingPennsylvania109,320Northeast97New BedfordMassachusetts109,189Northeast98Corpus ChristiTexas108,287South99PhoenixArizona106,818West100AllentownPennsylvania106,756Northeast
R.I.P. Doris Day
https://youtu.be/D0MtzQDltr0 Doris Day, the freckle-faced movie actress whose irrepressible personality and golden voice made her America’s top box-office star in the early 1960s, died on Monday at her home in Carmel Valley, Calif. She was 97. ~ NY Times May 13, 2019 Film appearances YearTitleRoleNotes1948Romance on the High SeasGeorgia GarrettHer feature film debut. Co-starring Jack Carson. Song "It's Magic" nominated for an Oscar.1949My Dream Is YoursMartha GibsonCo-starring Jack Carson.It's a Great FeelingJudy AdamsCo-starring Jack Carson and Dennis Morgan; with Errol Flynn, Joan Crawford, Edward G. Robinson, Sydney Greenstreet, Gary Cooper, Jane Wyman, Patricia Neal, Danny Kaye, Eleanor Parker.1950Young Man with a HornJo JordanHer first dramatic role. Co-starring Kirk Douglas and Lauren Bacall.Tea for TwoNanette CarterCo-starring Gordon MacRae. Adaptation of Broadway musical No, No, NanetteThe West Point StoryJan WilsonCo-starring James Cagney1951Storm WarningLucy RiceCo-starring Ronald Reagan, Ginger Rogers and Steve CochranLullaby of BroadwayMelinda HowardCo-starring Gene NelsonOn Moonlight BayMarjorie "Marjie" WinfieldCo-starring Gordon MacRaeBased on the Penrod stories by Booth Tarkington.I'll See You in My DreamsGrace LeBoy KahnCo-starring Danny ThomasStarliftHerselfHer name appeared first in the on-screen credits.1952The Winning TeamAimee AlexanderCo-starring Ronald ReaganApril in ParisEthel "Dynamite" JacksonCo-starring Ray Bolger1953By the Light of theSilvery MoonMarjorie "Marjie" WinfieldCo-starring Gordon MacRaeA sequel to On Moonlight Bay.Calamity JaneCalamity JaneCo-starring Howard Keel Introduced Academy Award-winning song Secret Love1954Lucky MeCandy WilliamsCo-starring Robert Cummings and Phil Silvers1955Young at HeartLaurie TuttleCo-starring Frank SinatraLove Me or Leave MeRuth EttingCo-starring James Cagney1956The Man Who Knew Too MuchJosephine Conway "Jo" McKennaCo-starring James Stewart. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock.Introduced Academy Award-winning song Que Sera, SeraJulieJulie BentonThriller co-starring Louis Jourdan1957The Pajama GameKatherine "Babe" WilliamsCo-starring John Raitt. Adaptation of Broadway musical1958Teacher’s PetErica StoneCo-starring Clark GableThe Tunnel of LoveIsolde PooleCo-starring Richard Widmark Golden Globe and Laurel nominations for Golden Globe Award for Best Female Performance - Musical or Comedy|Best Motion Picture Actress - Comedy/Musical1959It Happened to JaneJane OsgoodCo-starring Jack Lemmon and Ernie KovacsPillow TalkJan MorrowHer first film with Rock Hudson Academy Award-nominated for Best Actress.Golden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy. Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1960Please Don't Eat the DaisiesKate Robinson MackayCo-starring David NivenMidnight LaceKit PrestonThriller co-starring Rex HarrisonGolden Globe and Laurel Award nominations for Best Motion Picture Actress - Drama1961Lover Come BackCarol TempletonHer second film with Rock Hudson. Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1962That Touch of MinkCathy TimberlakeCo-starring Cary Grant. Won Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.Billy Rose's JumboKitty WonderAdaptation of Broadway musicalGolden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy1963The Thrill of It AllBeverly BoyerCo-starring James GarnerMove Over, DarlingEllen Wagstaff ArdenCo-starring James Garner. Remake of My Favorite Wife (1940).Initiated as Marilyn Monroe's unfinished film Something's Got to Give.Golden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy1964Send Me No FlowersJudy KimballHer third and last film with Rock Hudson. Won the Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1965Do Not DisturbJanet HarperCo-starring Rod Taylor1966The Glass Bottom BoatJennifer NelsonCo-starring Rod Taylor. Nominated for Laurel Award, best female comedy performance.1967CapricePatricia FosterCo-starring Richard HarrisThe Ballad of JosieJosie MinickCo-starring Peter Graves and George Kennedy1968Where Were You Whenthe Lights Went Out?Margaret GarrisonLaurel Award nomination for best female comedy performance.With Six You Get EggrollAbby McClureCo-starring Brian Keith; her last film. Laurel Award nomination for best female comedy performance. Discography 10" LPs You're My Thrill (1949) Tea for Two (1950) (soundtrack) Young Man with a Horn (1950) (w/Harry James) (soundtrack) Lullaby Of Broadway (1951) (soundtrack) On Moonlight Bay (1951) (soundtrack) I'll See You in My Dreams (1951) (soundtrack) By the Light of the Silvery Moon (1953) (soundtrack) Calamity Jane(1953) (soundtrack)The Deadwood StageSecret LoveJust Blew in From The Windy CityThe Black Hills Of DakotaA Woman's touchI can do without youHigher than a Hawk (Deeper than a well)Tis Harry I'm plannin' to marry Young at Heart (1954) (soundtrack) (w/Frank Sinatra)Till My...
What’s My Line
What's My Line? was a game show on the CBS Television Network from 1950 to 1967. Blindfolded celebrity panelists questioned a weekly "mystery guest" to determine his/her employment. Moderated by John Charles Daly, regular panelists included Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, and Bennett Cerf. What's My Line? was the longest-running primetime network television game-show in America. The show won Emmy Awards for "Best Quiz or Audience Participation Show" in 1952, 1953, and 1958 and the Golden Globe for Best TV Show in 1962.Ref: Wikipedia
Speech of Joseph McCarthy, Wheeling, West Virginia, February 9, 1950 ...The reason why we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because our only powerful potential enemy has sent men to invade our shores . . . but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have been treated so well by this Nation. It has not been the less fortunate, or members of minority groups who have been traitorous to this Nation, but rather those who have had all the benefits that the wealthiest Nation on earth has had to offer . . . the finest homes, the finest college education and the finest jobs in government we can give. This is glaringly true in the State Department. There the bright young men who are born with silver spoons in their mouths are the ones who have been most traitorous. . . . I have here in my hand a list of 205 . . . a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department. . . .
Korean War Vets Memorial
I just visited the American war memorials in Washington D.C. All evoke powerful emotions. The Korean War Veterans Memorial is located near the Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It was dedicated on July 27, 1995. The Memorial was designed and financed by private contributions and erected under the auspices of the Korean War Veterans Memorial Advisory Board . Source: The Memorial - Korean War Vets Memorial I am currently researching the events surrounding the Korean War for my next historical fiction novel regarding the time of that conflict.
The Broad High Road
https://youtu.be/yYyq__nwrA4 At the end of WWII, with a Conservative Party defeat in the 1945 general election, Winston Churchill became leader of the British opposition. Midst the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, Churchill warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. https://youtu.be/CTzdeT1lMyM Here is an excerpt from his famous speech of June 1940 after the fall of France and the Dunkirk evacuation. https://youtu.be/MkTw3_PmKtc
Republic of India
In 1947 India became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The eastern and northwest parts of colonial British India were partitioned into the Dominion of Pakistan with the transfer of ~10 million people and the tragic deaths of ~one million people. With the 1950 constitution, the Republic of India became a fully-independent democracy with Jawaharlal Nehru as its first Prime Minister. https://youtu.be/rpKG5ZB5eLI
The Great Brinks Robbery
The great Brinks robbery In January 1950 eleven men pulled off the greatest robbery up to that time at the Brinks Armed Car depot in Boston Massachusetts. Vanishing after stealing $2.7 million, the masked men left few clues (a chauffeur’s cap and adhesive tape and rope used to bind and gag Brinks employees). The gang was not caught until six years later (just before the statute of limitations would have been in effect).
People’s Republic of China
Song of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA) Forward! Forward! Forward!Our army faces towards the sun,Over the ground of our Motherland,Carrying the hope of our nation, We are an invincible power!We are the sons of peasantry,We are the arms of the people! Always fearless, never yielding, heroically fight, 'till we exterminate all counter-revolutionaries Mao Zedong's flag is fluttering high! Hark! The wind is roaring and the bugle is sounding;Hark! How thunderously our revolutionary song is ringing! Comrades, march forth in unity onto the frontiersof liberation and the borders of our Nation!. Forward! Forward!Our army faces towards the Sun;Towards the final victory;And the freedom of all our land! After almost 20 years of intermittent civil war, interrupted by cautious military cooperation against colonial Japan, the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in October 1949. By the end of January 1950, the last Nationalist Chinese Kuomintang troops surrendered in mainland China as the Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan with two million people, including military forces and refugees.
America in 1950
I have begun collecting images for my next book about the Korean War. (I'm jumping my own timeline here - we'll get back to 1946 with the next post) Check out my PINTEREST board ~ America in 1950 Any corrections (sometimes it's hard to pinpoint 1950 exactly since most search engines want "the 50s") or suggestions for additional items would be most welcome. A Marine bids farewell to his wife and two daughters as elements of the famed Second Marine Division leave for the West Coast - Circa August 1950. Published in "All Hands" magazine's March 1951 issue.