https://youtu.be/l6x7fzcx5oc Beginning in early 1950, the newly-established People's Republic of China (PRC) Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou En-lai met with Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and Foreign Minister Andrei Vyshinsky in Moscow to discuss an alliance for mutual assistance and defense. In the treaty, the USSR agreed to provide a $300 million and return control to the PRC of a major railroad and the Manchurian cities of Port Arthur (Lüshun Port) and Dairen (Dailian) which had been seized by Russian forces near the end of WWII. The mutual defense section of the agreement primarily concerned any future aggression by Japan or "any other state" directly or indirectly associated with Japan. Zhou En-lai declared that the linking of the two Communist nations created a force that was “impossible to defeat.” Many U.S. commentators saw the treaty as proof that Communism was a monolithic movement directed primarily by the Kremlin. An article in the New York Times referred to the PRC as a Soviet “satellite.”
Cigarettes Linked to Cancer
https://youtu.be/gCMzjJjuxQI 1949 Camel ad In 1950 The Journal of the American Medical Association published two articles linking smoking and cancer: Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiological Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Study of Six Hundred and Eighty-Four Proved Cases by E.L. Wynder and Dr. E.A. GrahamCancer and Tobacco Smoking: A Preliminary Report" was authored by M.L. Levin, H. Goldstein and P. R. GerhardtSince then a relationship between smoking and many other conditions has been established. Internal tobacco industry documents released through litigation and whistleblowers has subsequently revealed major corporate deceit in addressing the public regarding the dangers of smoking. https://youtu.be/MbHMZ6WSzlc John Wayne contracted cancer twice: in 1964, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and had his left lung removed, and in 1979 he contracted stomach cancer, which took his life. He felt his lung cancer was the result of his 5-pack-a-day, unfiltered cigarette habit. ~ Medical Bag In 1964 a landmark U.S. Surgeon Generals' smoking and health report linked smoking cigarettes with dangerous health effects, including lung cancer and heart disease. Since that time, the rate of cigarette smoking among Americans has been dramatically reduced.
Understanding Post-WWII East Asia
East Asia ~ Wikimedia I am currently on a trip to Seoul, Vladivostok and Tokyo to research locations for my upcoming historical-fiction novel covering the years 1940-1950. My protagonists are: a young Korean physician, trained in the Imperial Japanese medical system in colonial Korea (Chōsen), who joins anti-Japanese guerrillas in Manchuria and ultimately, escapes into Russiaa US Army officer (Nick from my first book Enemy in the Mirror: Love and Fury in the Pacific War), stationed at MacArthur's headquarters in occupied Japan, who is abruptly plunged into the battle for Korea Britannica My current understanding of this post-WWII epoch (1940-1950) is this: ~In an effort to reunite the country, both North Korea and South Korea were authoritarian states that assumed very aggressive military postures in the late 1940s—both claim the other actually started the war. ~Just recovering from the devastation of World War II, the USSR was not in favor of precipitating nor encouraging new wars in Asia—nevertheless, the Soviets could not turn their back on emerging Communist states. Although a few Soviet pilots participated in the war, Russian involvement in the Korean War was mainly the provision of equipment, training and technical support. ~ The United States, fearing South Korean President Syngman Rhee would start a war, restricted rearmament of the South to defensive efforts and provided a small advisory force for the Korean military. Deeply immersed in Cold War ideology, the U.S. government was convinced the USSR was directly behind all efforts to extend Communism globally. Fearing a "domino effect" in East Asia, the U.S. government saw no alternative but direct military intervention when North Korea invaded the South. ~ Communist China, emerging from a long civil war (temporarily interrupted by common cause against Imperial Japan) was sympathetic to North Korea but, like the USSR, also not wanting to get involved in a new war. Grateful to Koreans for their assistance in the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, Communist China felt an obligation to support North Korea, but resisted becoming involved in the war—until American troops were at the Yalu River and China responded with massive armed force. MOAweb Dear Reader: Any comments or alternative explanations would be greatly appreciated
McMinnvile Oregon UFO - Wikipedia In May 1950 photographs of UFOs taken on a farm near McMinnville, Oregon were published in Life magazine and nationwide newspapers. Although some skeptics believe UFOs are a hoax, many ufologists argue that the photos are genuine, and show an unidentified object in the sky. Newsweek magazine devised the following UFO Sighting credibility scale: One point for sightings with multiple witnessesAdditional point for an expert witness (a pilot, air traffic controller, military or government official)One point for sightings of an object <500 feet awayOne point for picture evidenceAdditional point for film of a moving UFOAdditional point for flight inconsistent with flight as humans know it.Two points for a physical effect (e.g., car light breaks, extreme heat, scorch marks on ground)Three points for seeing an animated pilot Minus three points if military/government body discredits sighting This book, reviewing startling reports from qualified observers such as pilots, generals and government officials convinces me there is real substance in many UFO reports. https://youtu.be/S4PYI6TzqYk
USSR Repatriates German POWs
https://youtu.be/5Skoh6n2SB4 In 1950, while releasing 17,538 German soldiers, the Soviet Union claimed it had completed repatriation of all WWII German POWs numbering 1,939,063. Since the Russian TASS news agency had reported 3.5 million German POWs held in the USSR in 1945, West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer demanded to know what had happened to >1.5 million still missing. The U.S. State Department described the Soviet claim as "fantastic and absurd" while estimating 200,000 German POWs were still in Soviet labor camps. Source: German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Nuclear “Doom” Towns
https://youtu.be/wgpo0qAfwDk In the 1950s, nuclear testing began at the Nevada National Security Site with nuclear bombs mounted on top of a 1500 foot detonation tower so the fireball wouldn't damage the monitoring equipment. "Doom" towns were assembled with shops, gas stations, and homes made of brick and wood . After the blast ~The Atlantic Building interiors held life-size, family mannequins wearing various types of clothing to evaluate how different fabrics would be affected during the energy bursts and extreme heat.
Beat the Clock
https://youtu.be/H0cBnWgZOKg First televised by CBS in 1950, Beat the Clock was an American television game show that required its contestants to accomplish various stunts within 60 seconds. Contestants were chosen from the studio audience and usually were married couples. The show had several sponsors over its run, with the most longstanding being the electronics company Sylvania. After its first run ended in 1961, Beat the Clock was revived several times over the years. Its most recent revival began on Universal Kids on February 6, 2018. https://youtu.be/bwKErX9NyHU
Brittanica.com By the end of 1949, most of mainland China was under Communist control. Official Communist figures counted some 1.5 million dead and wounded among the People’s Liberation Army. ~600,000 Nationalists troops were killed in combat, while roughly three times that many defected to the Communists. Nearly 7 million Nationalist troops were captured during four years of combat. Approximately 5 million civilians died as a result of combat, famine, and disease. As they steadily lost ground to the Communist forces, Chinese Nationalist leaders left mainland China for the island of Taiwan, where they established their new capital. In 1542 Portuguese sailors named the uncharted island (福爾摩沙) Ilha Formosa (beautiful island). With the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture in 1684, the current Chinese name Taiwan (臺灣) became official. https://youtu.be/I4Sj7OP-x48
American Shopping Mall
Pinterest In April 1950 Northgate Center, the first urban shopping mall, was opened in Seattle.Originally an open air complex where the stores faced each other, Northgate began adding a roof over the concourse in 1962 and was completely enclosed by 1974. https://youtu.be/CZyMiyYZr4Y Today.com In August 2019 Seattle’s premiere retailer, Nordstrom, an original Mall tenant, chose to leave Northgate. One reason for the Nordstrom closure is the National Hockey League Seattle plans to turn part of the area into its headquarters—but the move is widely interpreted as signaling the end of the suburban shopping mall era that began in Seattle in 1950. Eventually, the American fascination with malls hit a feverish peak—in 1990, 19 new malls opened across America. But beginning in the late 1990s, the culture that once fed the American mall started to change. Shopping centers that hadn't been renovated in years began to show signs of wear and tear, and the middle-aged, middle-class shoppers that once flooded their shops began to disappear, turning the once sterile suburban shopping centers into perceived havens for crime. Increasingly rundown and redundant, malls started turning into ghost towns—first losing shoppers and then losing stores. Today, the vacancy rate in America's regional malls hovers around 7.9 percent; at its peak, in 2011, vacancy at regional malls was 9.4 percent. Source: The Smithsonian https://youtu.be/s0g1ZpXypo0
NSC 68 ~ No Preventive War
https://youtu.be/7ugz3eS1R6Q NSC 68 the United States Objectives and Programs for National Security was issued by U.S. President Truman's National Security Council in April 1950. Classified top secret until 1975, the document defined American foreign policy during the Truman presidency designed to "assure the integrity and vitality of our free society." NSC 68 stated the Soviet Union's fundamental design was "the complete subversion or forcible destruction of the machinery of government and structure of society in the countries of the non-Soviet world." NSC 68 ruled out a pre-emptive U.S. nuclear strike against the USSR—but concluded that a rapid and sustained build-up of the political, economic and military strength of the free world was necessary to "frustrate the Kremlin design of a world dominated by its will."
First Black NBA Player
https://youtu.be/08IK0FjcPss In 1950 Chuck Cooper an All-American basketball player from Duquesne University (a private Catholic school in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania) was selected in the second round by the Boston Celtics. Cooper thus became the first African-American to play in the professional National Basketball Association league. After college, Cooper first signed onto the Harlem Globetrotters, but in April 1950, was drafted into the NBA when the Celtics chose him on the 14th overall pick. Later in the draft, the Washington Capitols, a charter team in the Basketball Association of America (forerunner of the NBA), selected Earl Lloyd and Harold Hunter. https://youtu.be/6mgcAOLm2sI
https://youtu.be/e7hpZbGd2Uw In 1950, the first public demonstration of the RCA system for color television, the all electronic tri-color picture tube, was made at a press conference in Washington, DC. The RCA system was eventually accepted by the Federal Communications Commission over a competing system designed by CBS, and became the standard for broadcasting.
U.S. Navy Plane Shot Down
Consolidated Vultee PB4Y-2 Privateer In April 1950, Soviet fighters shot down a US Navy PB4Y-2 Privateer patrol bomber over the Baltic Sea. At the time, Privateers were used by the US Navy for signals intelligence flights off of the coast of the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. The Soviet Foreign Ministry acknowledged the attack, but stated the aircraft was flying in Soviet airspace, and had fired on Soviet fighters when they attempted to signal it to land. The Soviet government also stated it had no information about survivors from this flight. American search and rescue efforts were unsuccessful, but two unmanned life rafts and some wreckage were eventually recovered. The United States maintained that the crew members were captured and held in Soviet Gulags until their death. The Soviets denied this. Source: Remembering Crew Members of U.S. Navy PB4Y-2 Shoot Down, April 8, 1950 – And Shocking Cold War Case Study – Station HYPO https://youtu.be/sPvB76l1AQE
Father of the Bride
https://youtu.be/ok7pNklkNhA IN 1950 director Vincente Minelli's comedy Father of the Bride (adapted from a book of the same title by Edward Streeter) told the story of a man (Spencer Tracy) dealing with his daughter's upcoming wedding. The cast included Joan Bennett, Elizabeth Taylor, Don Taylor, Billie Burke and Leo G. Carroll. Father of the Bride was one of the top grossing films of the year and received Academy Award nominations for best leading actor, best picture and best screenplay. Steve Martin and Diane Keaton starred in the 1991 version Father of the Bride and its 1995 sequel Father of the Bride-Part 2. https://youtu.be/o-JEkllZPDE
There Will Come Soft Rains
https://youtu.be/bv_D39zKZzc In May 1950, at the height of the Cold War, science fiction writer Ray Bradbury published the short story There Will Come Soft Rains in Collier's magazine. Later that year the story was included in The Martian Chronicles . Plot Summary: An overnight nuclear catastrophe desolates a city in California except for a single preserved house where the daily routine continues – automatic systems within the home prepare breakfast, clean the house, make beds, wash dishes, and address the former residents without any knowledge of their current state as burnt silhouettes on one of the walls. In spite of the homeowners' evident deaths, the house's systems zealously uphold its sanctity, frightening off surviving birds by closing the window shutters. One afternoon, a dog is allowed into the house when it is recognized as the family pet, but it soon dies. That evening, the house recites to the absent hostess her favorite poem, "There Will Come Soft Rains" by Sara Teasdale. A kitchen fire spreads throughout the house. Although systems desperately attempt to salvage the house, it burns to the ground overnight. At dawn a voice from the lone surviving wall endlessly repeats the time and date. https://youtu.be/rGW48EItyco
On May Day 1950 fake Communists took over Mosinee Wisconsin. Conceived by John Decker, a WWII veteran lawyer, and backed by the American Legion, the event was intended to highlight what liberties Americans would lose in an actual Communist takeover. picclick.com Ironically, the event planned for the traditional May Day worker's holiday, was joined by American Communist Party members who distributed issues of the Daily Worker around town asking: “So this is supposed to be communism; says who?”
In May 1950 the magazine Astounding Science Fiction published Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health by L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics divides the mind into: (1) the conscious analytical mind (2) the subconscious reactive mind (3) the somatic mind Scientologists believe the reactive mind interferes with a person's ethics, awareness, happiness, and sanity. Scientology auditors employ a procedure utilizing an e-meter while asking questions to determine the content of the reactive mind. https://youtu.be/rDyNoativPA Scientology procedures and tactics (including intimidation of critics) are highly controversial.Controversies include Scientology's stance on psychiatry, its legitimacy as a religion, its aggressive attitude against critics, allegations of mistreatment of members, its predatory financial practices and perceived exploitative practices. https://youtu.be/Uraz0CExF2E
B-36 Crash~British Columbia
https://youtu.be/uLnagDIlfZQ In February 1950 a US Air Force B-36 crashed near the coast of northern British Columbia during a simulated nuclear attack on San Francisco. A Mark 4 nuclear bomb, which lacked the plutonium core needed for a nuclear blast, was dropped over the ocean before the plane crashed. 12 of 17 men on board survived. Wikipedia The Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" was a strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force from 1949 to 1959.The largest mass-produced, piston-engine aircraft ever built, the B-36 was the first bomber capable of delivering U.S. nuclear weapons over a range of 10,000 mi (16,000 km) without refuelling. Entering service in 1948, the B-36 was the primary nuclear weapons bomber of Strategic Air Command (SAC) until it was replaced by the jet-powered Boeing B-52 Stratofortress in 1955. In 2016 a Canadian diver apparently recovered the bomb https://youtu.be/rFZXoV988EI
Mao and Stalin
Transcripts of the December 1949 and January 1950 sessions between Mao Tse-tung and Joseph Stalin were obtained from Soviet archives by the New York Times in 1995, Moscow December 1949: The first meeting between Mao Tse-tung and Joseph Stalin took place only months after Mao's revolutionary army had taken control of China. Mao asked Stalin to send "volunteer" pilots or secret military detachments to speed up the conquest of Formosa (Taiwan). Stalin only agreed to consider it. Wikipedia Moscow February 1950 - Joseph Stalin and Mao Tse-tung signed a mutual defense treaty which opened what the United States saw as a new front in the cold war. But the new records and recently released documents from Chinese archives suggest that the alliance did not have a strong foundation and may have been foredoomed.
When the Japanese invasion of Asia threatened America’s rubber supply during World War II, chemists at General Electric began looking for a synthetic substitute. James Wright stumbled upon ... a stretchy material that withstood decay and bounced 25 percent higher than rubber. When left untouched, this “solid liquid” flowed in slow motion and when struck sharply, it broke into pieces. Wright failed to find a wartime use for the goofy goo. Afterward, this “bouncing putty” or “nutty putty” amused guests at parties but did little else until toy marketer Peter Hodgson decided to list it as a novelty ...for a dollar, just in time for Easter. After a New Yorker article featured Silly Putty in 1950, orders topped 250,000 in three days. Millions have sold every year since...Astronauts even took it aboard Apollo 8 to stick down tools in zero gravity! Source: National Toy Hall of Fame
FBI Ten Most Wanted List
https://youtu.be/nWgn0lb9q3A In March 1950 the FBI officially released a list of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives designed to increase law enforcement's ability to capture dangerous fugitives. If fugitives were captured, died, had charges dropped or were no longer considered a dangerous menace to society, the FBI removed them from the Ten Most Wanted List and replaced them with a new entry. As of 2018, the FBI had featured a total of 519 criminals in the 10 Most Wanted rundown. The Bureau says that 486 of those individuals were eventually captured, with the publicity of the list being a key reason. Of those 486, 162 were apprehended based on information shared by a tip. ~11 Facts About the FBI's 10 Most Wanted List
Einstein Warns of Arms Race
https://youtu.be/K4MjwIFoPn0 Transcript: The Eleanor Roosevelt Show." NBC Radio February 1950 ALBERT EINSTEIN (Physicist): ... The idea of achieving security through national armament is, at the present state of military technique, a disastrous illusion. On the part of the U.S.A. this illusion has been particularly fostered by the fact that this country succeeded first in producing an atomic bomb. The belief seemed to prevail that in the end it would be possible to achieve decisive military superiority... This mechanistic, technical-military psychological attitude has had its inevitable consequences. Every single act in foreign policy is governed exclusively by one viewpoint: how do we have to act in order to achieve utmost superiority over the opponent in case of war? Establishing military bases at all possible strategically important points on the globe. Arming and economic strengthening of potential allies. Within the country: concentration of tremendous financial power in the hands of the military; militarization of the youth; close supervision of the loyalty of the citizens, in particular, of the civil servants, by a police force growing more conspicuous every day. Intimidation of people of independent political thinking. Subtle indoctrination of the public by radio, press, and schools. Growing restriction of the range of public information under the pressure of military secrecy. The armament race between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., originally supposed to be a preventive measure, assumes hysterical character. On both sides, the means to mass destruction are perfected with feverish haste - behind the respective walls of secrecy. The hydrogen bomb appears on the public horizon as a probably attainable goal. Its accelerated development has been solemnly proclaimed by the President. If it is successful, radioactive poisoning of the atmosphere and hence annihilation of any life on earth has been brought within the range of technical possibilities. The ghostlike character of this development lies in its apparently compulsory trend. Every step appears as the unavoidable consequence of the preceding one. In the end, there beckons more and more clearly general annihilation. Is there any way out of this impasse created by man himself? All of us, and particularly those who are responsible for the attitude of the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., should realize that we may have vanquished an external enemy, but have been incapable of getting rid of the mentality created by the war. It is impossible to achieve peace as long as every single action is taken with a possible future conflict in view. The leading point of view of all political action should therefore be: what can we do to bring about a peaceful coexistence and even loyal cooperation of the nations? The first problem is to do away with mutual fear and distrust. Solemn renunciation of violence (not only with respect to means of mass destruction) is undoubtedly necessary. Such renunciation, however, can be effective only if at the same time a supranational judicial and executive body is set up empowered to decide questions of immediate concern to the security of the nations. Even a declaration of...
Radio Free Europe
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4pQh2PjdziQ&t=65s Headquartered in Munich Germany, Radio Free Europe was founded as an anti-communist propaganda platform in 1949 by the National Committee for a Free Europe (a CIA front organization). Although clearly Western propaganda, Radio Free Europe provided a counterpoint to monolithic Communist media and attracted many listeners in Soviet bloc countries. Aware of its appeal, Communist governments frequently infiltrated Radio Free Europe headquarters, and regularly jammed its signals. https://youtu.be/fHzxjxtnXSo In the post Cold War era, Radio Free Europe continues to broadcast from Prague providing news and information to countries where independent media reporting is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed.
https://youtu.be/PUwmA3Q0_OE YearTotal world population(mid-year figures)Ten-year growthrate (%)19502,556,000,05318.9%19603,039,451,02322.019703,706,618,16320.219804,453,831,71418.519905,278,639,78915.220006,082,966,42912.6201016,848,932,92910.7202017,584,821,1448.7203018,246,619,3417.3204018,850,045,8895.6205019,346,399,468— Projected.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Database. SEPT. 6, 2018 — According to the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2017 National Population Projections by 2030, all baby boomers will be older than age 65. This will expand the size of the older population so that 1 in every 5 residents will be retirement age. By 2035, there will be 78.0 million people 65 years and older compared to 76.7 million (previously 76.4 million) under the age of 18.
First Kidney Transplant
https://youtu.be/EP9gnlmEyo8 In June 1950 Dr. Richard Lawler performed the first successful kidney transplantation. The donor kidney was removed from a patient who had died of cirrhosis of the liver. The recipient was a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, (PKD), a genetic disorder with multiple fluid-filled cysts typically in both kidneys.Transplantation was risky but the only real option for survival for the patient, since renal dialysis was not yet widely available. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/polycystic-kidney-disease/what-is-pkd The transplanted kidney functioned for ~ 53 days. 10 months after transplantation it was rejected and removed. With PKD in both of her kidneys, the patient's remaining kidney functioned at ~10%, enabling her to live another 5 years when she died of unrelated cardiac disease. This first kidney transplantation was conducted prior to development of immunosuppressant drugs and tissue typing which would have helped prevent organ rejection.
https://youtu.be/3FlVhQTIL1Q Sponsored by Lipton Tea, Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts was broadcast on CBS radio and television from 1946 until 1958. Godfrey was also hosting Arthur Godfrey and His Friends at the same time. Arthur Godfrey delivered commercials in a laid-back manner and often spoke irreverently about subjects that came up on his show. His easygoing style and dry wit attracted a strong following for several years. https://youtu.be/vAixx8G2wzU Some talent featured on Godfrey's show, such as the McGuire Sisters, went on to successful careers. https://youtu.be/TRSAbWIi478
Diners Club Card
https://youtu.be/iR5QYkdiaq4 In February 1950 the Diners Club issued the first credit card which only allowed charges at restaurants. By the end of the year, Diners Club had 20,000 members. In 1950 the company charged participating establishments 7% and billed cardholders $5 per year. By the mid-1960s, Diners Club had 1.3 million cardholders. Diners Club International was acquired by Citigroup in 1981. In 2008, Discover Financial Services purchased Diners Club International from Citibank for $165 million. Average Credit Card Processing Fees 2019The average credit card processing cost for a retail business where cards are swiped is roughly 1.95% – 2% for Visa, Mastercard, and Discover transactions. The average cost for card-not-present businesses, such as online shops, is roughly 2.30% – 2.50%.
U.S. Reveals H-Bomb Plans
In 1949 the United States had lost its nuclear supremacy when the Soviet Union successfully detonated an atomic bomb at their test site in Kazakhstan. https://youtu.be/ZQOZp4ThymU USSR conducts its first atomic bomb test - 1949 Several weeks after a successful Soviet atomic bomb test, Klaus Fuchs, a scientist in the U.S. nuclear program, was discovered spying for the Soviet Union. These two events, and the fact that the USSR had access to American research information regarding the construction of the hydrogen bomb, led Truman to make this public announcement on January 31, 1950: “It is part of my responsibility as commander in chief of the Armed Forces to see to it that our country is able to defend itself against any possible aggressor,” Truman said. “Accordingly, I have directed the Atomic Energy Commission to continue its work on all forms of atomic weapons, including the so-called hydrogen or superbomb. Like all other work in the field of atomic weapons, it is being and will be carried forward on a basis consistent with the overall objectives of our program for peace and security.” Source: Politico
Klaus Fuchs Atomic Spy
https://youtu.be/mqQ5_Na8DIc The German theoretical physicist Klaus Fuchs helped develop the first effective atomic bomb at Los Alamos during the WWII Manhattan Project. German born, Fuchs fled Nazi Germany and became a British citizen in August 1942. As a long-time Communist sympathizer, Fuchs soon began providing Soviet KGB operatives with classified information on the progress of Britain’s atomic energy research. In 1943, Fuchs went to Columbia University in New York with a British delegation of scientists to work on the Manhattan Project. In 1944 he began releasing classified information to a KGB agent in America. In August 1944 Fuchs was transferred to Los Alamos where he calculated the approximate energy yield of an atomic explosion, and specialized in researching implosion methods. In addition to secrets regarding the American atomic bomb project, Fuchs also passed detailed information about the hydrogen bomb to the Soviets. At the end of the war, Fuchs returned to England and continued his work on the British atomic bomb project. In 1949 decrypted cables from the U. S. Army Signal Intelligence Service revealed Fuchs was a Soviet spy. Fuchs was arrested in January 1950 and charged with violating Britain's Official Secrets Act. After his testimony led to the arrests of KGB agents (including Julius and Ethel Rosenberg) he was released after nine of his 14 year prison sentence. In 1959 Fuchs returned to the (East) German Democratic Republic as Deputy Director of the Central Institute for Nuclear Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf laboratory. In 1979 he received the Karl Marx Medal of Honor.
https://youtu.be/YChfpVD5xpk PROCLAMATION 2889 - May 22, 1950 PRAYER FOR PEACE, MEMORIAL DAY Since war is the world's most terrible scourge, we should do all in our power to prevent its recurrence.It was the hope of mankind that with the cessation of hostilities of World War II the way would be open to founding a permanent peace. Instead, that war has left the world in a state of continued unrest. Accordingly, we feel the need of turning in humble suppliance to Almighty God for help and guidance.In recognition of this need, the Congress has fittingly provided, in a joint resolution which I approved on May 11, 1950, that Memorial Day, which has long been set aside for paying tribute to those who lost their lives in war, shall henceforth be dedicated also as a day for Nation-wide prayer for permanent peace. The Congress has also requested that the President issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe Memorial Day in that manner.NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, pursuant to the aforementioned resolution, do hereby proclaim Memorial Day, Tuesday, May 30, 1950, and each succeeding Memorial Day, as a day of prayer for permanent peace. And I designate the hour beginning at eleven o'clock in the morning of that day, Eastern Daylight Saving Time, as a period in which all our people may unite in prayer, each in accordance with his own religious faith, for divine aid in bringing enduring peace to a troubled world.I also request the agencies of the press, radio, television, and other media of public information to join in the observance of that day and of the specified hour by announcements and programs designed to unite the Nation in a universal prayer for permanent peace.IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed.DONE at the City of Washington this 22nd day of May in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and fifty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and seventy-fourth. [SEAL]HARRY S. TRUMAN Here is an interesting archival collection of NY Times Memorial Day articles since WWI: 100 Years of Memorial Day Commemorations
Storm Clouds ~ U.S. & China
https://youtu.be/61dGhZPzSxs Australian Associated Press - January 15, 1950 Despite British recognition of the new regime, Communist seizure of U.S. consular property in Beijing prompted the United States to recall all consular officials from China in January 1950. Some background In August 1949 the U.S. Department of State issued the China White Paper, which stated that the United States had stayed out of the Chinese civil war because it neither should nor could have influenced the outcome. In October 1949, after the Nationalists were driven from mainland China, Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Shortly before the proclamation of the new Chinese government, U.S. Ambassador John Leighton Stuart met with Communist leaders to discuss U.S. recognition of the the new regime. Further negotiations faltered when Mao announced his intention to lean towards the side of the Soviet Union. Source: https://history.state.gov/countries/issues/china-us-relations Vyacheslav Molotov Mao Zedong
For the first time, the 1950 U.S. census counted a population in the United States >150 million people. State rankings RankStatePopulation1New York14,830,1922California10,586,2233Pennsylvania10,498,0124Illinois8,712,1765Ohio7,946,6276Texas7,748,0007Michigan6,421,0008New Jersey4,860,0009Massachusetts4,690,00010North Carolina4,060,00011Indiana3,952,00012Missouri3,946,00013Georgia3,451,00014Wisconsin3,449,00015Tennessee3,304,00016Virginia3,262,00017Alabama3,060,00018Minnesota2,995,00019Kentucky2,957,00020Florida2,821,00021Louisiana2,701,00022Iowa2,621,00023Washington2,386,00024Maryland2,376,00025Oklahoma2,193,00026Mississippi2,169,00027South Carolina2,119,00028Connecticut2,007,28029West Virginia2,006,00030Kansas1,915,00031Arkansas1,906,00032Oregon1,532,00033Colorado1,337,00034Nebraska1,324,00035Maine911,000xDistrict of Columbia814,00036Rhode Island779,00037Arizona756,00038Utah696,00039New Mexico687,00040South Dakota652,00041North Dakota616,00042Montana598,00043Idaho592,00044New Hampshire531,000xHawaii491,00045Vermont377,00046Delaware321,00047Wyoming292,00048Nevada162,000xAlaska138,000 City rankings RankCityStatePopulationRegion (2016)01New YorkNew York7,891,957Northeast02ChicagoIllinois3,620,962Midwest03PhiladelphiaPennsylvania2,071,605Northeast04Los AngelesCalifornia1,970,358West05DetroitMichigan1,849,568Midwest06BaltimoreMaryland949,708South07ClevelandOhio914,808Midwest08St. LouisMissouri856,796Midwest09WashingtonDistrict of Columbia802,178South10BostonMassachusetts801,444Northeast11San FranciscoCalifornia775,357West12PittsburghPennsylvania676,806Northeast13MilwaukeeWisconsin637,392Midwest14HoustonTexas596,163South15BuffaloNew York580,132Northeast16New OrleansLouisiana570,445South17MinneapolisMinnesota521,718Midwest18CincinnatiOhio503,998Midwest19SeattleWashington467,591West20Kansas CityMissouri456,622Midwest21NewarkNew Jersey438,776Northeast22DallasTexas434,462South23IndianapolisIndiana427,173Midwest24DenverColorado415,786West25San AntonioTexas408,442South26MemphisTennessee396,000South27OaklandCalifornia384,575West28ColumbusOhio375,901Midwest29PortlandOregon373,628West30LouisvilleKentucky369,129South31San DiegoCalifornia334,387West32RochesterNew York332,488Northeast33AtlantaGeorgia331,314South34BirminghamAlabama326,037South35Saint PaulMinnesota311,349Midwest36ToledoOhio303,616Midwest37Jersey CityNew Jersey299,017Northeast38Fort WorthTexas278,778South39AkronOhio274,605Midwest40OmahaNebraska251,117Midwest41Long BeachCalifornia250,767West42MiamiFlorida249,276South43ProvidenceRhode Island248,674Northeast44DaytonOhio243,872Midwest45Oklahoma CityOklahoma243,504South46RichmondVirginia230,310South47SyracuseNew York220,583Northeast48NorfolkVirginia213,513South49JacksonvilleFlorida204,517South50WorcesterMassachusetts203,486Northeast51TulsaOklahoma182,740South52Salt Lake CityUtah182,121West53Des MoinesIowa177,965Midwest54HartfordConnecticut177,397Northeast55Grand RapidsMichigan176,515Midwest56NashvilleTennessee174,307South57YoungstownOhio168,330Midwest58WichitaKansas168,279Midwest59New HavenConnecticut164,443Northeast60FlintMichigan163,143Midwest61SpringfieldMassachusetts162,399Northeast62SpokaneWashington161,721West63BridgeportConnecticut158,709Northeast64YonkersNew York152,798Northeast65TacomaWashington143,673West66PatersonNew Jersey139,336Northeast67SacramentoCalifornia137,572West68ArlingtonVirginia135,449South69AlbanyNew York134,995Northeast70CharlotteNorth Carolina134,042South71GaryIndiana133,911Midwest72Fort WayneIndiana133,607Midwest73AustinTexas132,459South74ChattanoogaTennessee131,041South75EriePennsylvania130,803Northeast76El PasoTexas130,485South77Kansas CityKansas129,553Midwest78MobileAlabama129,009South79EvansvilleIndiana128,636Midwest80TrentonNew Jersey128,009Northeast81ShreveportLouisiana127,206South82Baton RougeLouisiana125,629South83ScrantonPennsylvania125,536Northeast84KnoxvilleTennessee124,769South85TampaFlorida124,681South86CamdenNew Jersey124,555Northeast87CambridgeMassachusetts120,740Northeast88SavannahGeorgia119,638South89CantonOhio116,912Midwest90South BendIndiana115,911Midwest91BerkeleyCalifornia113,805West92ElizabethNew Jersey112,817Northeast93Fall RiverMassachusetts111,963Northeast94PeoriaIllinois111,856Midwest95WilmingtonDelaware110,356South96ReadingPennsylvania109,320Northeast97New BedfordMassachusetts109,189Northeast98Corpus ChristiTexas108,287South99PhoenixArizona106,818West100AllentownPennsylvania106,756Northeast
R.I.P. Doris Day
https://youtu.be/D0MtzQDltr0 Doris Day, the freckle-faced movie actress whose irrepressible personality and golden voice made her America’s top box-office star in the early 1960s, died on Monday at her home in Carmel Valley, Calif. She was 97. ~ NY Times May 13, 2019 Film appearances YearTitleRoleNotes1948Romance on the High SeasGeorgia GarrettHer feature film debut. Co-starring Jack Carson. Song "It's Magic" nominated for an Oscar.1949My Dream Is YoursMartha GibsonCo-starring Jack Carson.It's a Great FeelingJudy AdamsCo-starring Jack Carson and Dennis Morgan; with Errol Flynn, Joan Crawford, Edward G. Robinson, Sydney Greenstreet, Gary Cooper, Jane Wyman, Patricia Neal, Danny Kaye, Eleanor Parker.1950Young Man with a HornJo JordanHer first dramatic role. Co-starring Kirk Douglas and Lauren Bacall.Tea for TwoNanette CarterCo-starring Gordon MacRae. Adaptation of Broadway musical No, No, NanetteThe West Point StoryJan WilsonCo-starring James Cagney1951Storm WarningLucy RiceCo-starring Ronald Reagan, Ginger Rogers and Steve CochranLullaby of BroadwayMelinda HowardCo-starring Gene NelsonOn Moonlight BayMarjorie "Marjie" WinfieldCo-starring Gordon MacRaeBased on the Penrod stories by Booth Tarkington.I'll See You in My DreamsGrace LeBoy KahnCo-starring Danny ThomasStarliftHerselfHer name appeared first in the on-screen credits.1952The Winning TeamAimee AlexanderCo-starring Ronald ReaganApril in ParisEthel "Dynamite" JacksonCo-starring Ray Bolger1953By the Light of theSilvery MoonMarjorie "Marjie" WinfieldCo-starring Gordon MacRaeA sequel to On Moonlight Bay.Calamity JaneCalamity JaneCo-starring Howard Keel Introduced Academy Award-winning song Secret Love1954Lucky MeCandy WilliamsCo-starring Robert Cummings and Phil Silvers1955Young at HeartLaurie TuttleCo-starring Frank SinatraLove Me or Leave MeRuth EttingCo-starring James Cagney1956The Man Who Knew Too MuchJosephine Conway "Jo" McKennaCo-starring James Stewart. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock.Introduced Academy Award-winning song Que Sera, SeraJulieJulie BentonThriller co-starring Louis Jourdan1957The Pajama GameKatherine "Babe" WilliamsCo-starring John Raitt. Adaptation of Broadway musical1958Teacher’s PetErica StoneCo-starring Clark GableThe Tunnel of LoveIsolde PooleCo-starring Richard Widmark Golden Globe and Laurel nominations for Golden Globe Award for Best Female Performance - Musical or Comedy|Best Motion Picture Actress - Comedy/Musical1959It Happened to JaneJane OsgoodCo-starring Jack Lemmon and Ernie KovacsPillow TalkJan MorrowHer first film with Rock Hudson Academy Award-nominated for Best Actress.Golden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy. Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1960Please Don't Eat the DaisiesKate Robinson MackayCo-starring David NivenMidnight LaceKit PrestonThriller co-starring Rex HarrisonGolden Globe and Laurel Award nominations for Best Motion Picture Actress - Drama1961Lover Come BackCarol TempletonHer second film with Rock Hudson. Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1962That Touch of MinkCathy TimberlakeCo-starring Cary Grant. Won Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.Billy Rose's JumboKitty WonderAdaptation of Broadway musicalGolden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy1963The Thrill of It AllBeverly BoyerCo-starring James GarnerMove Over, DarlingEllen Wagstaff ArdenCo-starring James Garner. Remake of My Favorite Wife (1940).Initiated as Marilyn Monroe's unfinished film Something's Got to Give.Golden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy1964Send Me No FlowersJudy KimballHer third and last film with Rock Hudson. Won the Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1965Do Not DisturbJanet HarperCo-starring Rod Taylor1966The Glass Bottom BoatJennifer NelsonCo-starring Rod Taylor. Nominated for Laurel Award, best female comedy performance.1967CapricePatricia FosterCo-starring Richard HarrisThe Ballad of JosieJosie MinickCo-starring Peter Graves and George Kennedy1968Where Were You Whenthe Lights Went Out?Margaret GarrisonLaurel Award nomination for best female comedy performance.With Six You Get EggrollAbby McClureCo-starring Brian Keith; her last film. Laurel Award nomination for best female comedy performance. Discography 10" LPs You're My Thrill (1949) Tea for Two (1950) (soundtrack) Young Man with a Horn (1950) (w/Harry James) (soundtrack) Lullaby Of Broadway (1951) (soundtrack) On Moonlight Bay (1951) (soundtrack) I'll See You in My Dreams (1951) (soundtrack) By the Light of the Silvery Moon (1953) (soundtrack) Calamity Jane(1953) (soundtrack)The Deadwood StageSecret LoveJust Blew in From The Windy CityThe Black Hills Of DakotaA Woman's touchI can do without youHigher than a Hawk (Deeper than a well)Tis Harry I'm plannin' to marry Young at Heart (1954) (soundtrack) (w/Frank Sinatra)Till My...
What’s My Line
What's My Line? was a game show on the CBS Television Network from 1950 to 1967. Blindfolded celebrity panelists questioned a weekly "mystery guest" to determine his/her employment. Moderated by John Charles Daly, regular panelists included Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, and Bennett Cerf. What's My Line? was the longest-running primetime network television game-show in America. The show won Emmy Awards for "Best Quiz or Audience Participation Show" in 1952, 1953, and 1958 and the Golden Globe for Best TV Show in 1962.Ref: Wikipedia
Speech of Joseph McCarthy, Wheeling, West Virginia, February 9, 1950 ...The reason why we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because our only powerful potential enemy has sent men to invade our shores . . . but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have been treated so well by this Nation. It has not been the less fortunate, or members of minority groups who have been traitorous to this Nation, but rather those who have had all the benefits that the wealthiest Nation on earth has had to offer . . . the finest homes, the finest college education and the finest jobs in government we can give. This is glaringly true in the State Department. There the bright young men who are born with silver spoons in their mouths are the ones who have been most traitorous. . . . I have here in my hand a list of 205 . . . a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department. . . .
Korean War Vets Memorial
I just visited the American war memorials in Washington D.C. All evoke powerful emotions. The Korean War Veterans Memorial is located near the Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It was dedicated on July 27, 1995. The Memorial was designed and financed by private contributions and erected under the auspices of the Korean War Veterans Memorial Advisory Board . Source: The Memorial - Korean War Vets Memorial I am currently researching the events surrounding the Korean War for my next historical fiction novel regarding the time of that conflict.
The Broad High Road
At the end of WWII, with a Conservative Party defeat in the 1945 general election, Winston Churchill became leader of the British opposition. Midst the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, Churchill warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. In this inspiring 1950 election speech, Churchill demonstrated his superb oratorical skill Here is an excerpt from his famous speech of June 1940 after the fall of France and the Dunkirk evacuation. https://youtu.be/MkTw3_PmKtc
Republic of India
In 1947 India became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The eastern and northwest parts of colonial British India were partitioned into the Dominion of Pakistan with the transfer of ~10 million people and the tragic deaths of ~one million people. With the 1950 constitution, the Republic of India became a fully-independent democracy with Jawaharlal Nehru as its first Prime Minister. https://youtu.be/rpKG5ZB5eLI
The Great Brinks Robbery
The great Brinks robbery In January 1950 eleven men pulled off the greatest robbery up to that time at the Brinks Armed Car depot in Boston Massachusetts. Vanishing after stealing $2.7 million, the masked men left few clues (a chauffeur’s cap and adhesive tape and rope used to bind and gag Brinks employees). The gang was not caught until six years later (just before the statute of limitations would have been in effect).
People’s Republic of China
Song of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA) Forward! Forward! Forward!Our army faces towards the sun,Over the ground of our Motherland,Carrying the hope of our nation, We are an invincible power!We are the sons of peasantry,We are the arms of the people! Always fearless, never yielding, heroically fight, 'till we exterminate all counter-revolutionaries Mao Zedong's flag is fluttering high! Hark! The wind is roaring and the bugle is sounding;Hark! How thunderously our revolutionary song is ringing! Comrades, march forth in unity onto the frontiersof liberation and the borders of our Nation!. Forward! Forward!Our army faces towards the Sun;Towards the final victory;And the freedom of all our land! After almost 20 years of intermittent civil war, interrupted by cautious military cooperation against colonial Japan, the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in October 1949. By the end of January 1950, the last Nationalist Chinese Kuomintang troops surrendered in mainland China as the Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan with two million people, including military forces and refugees.
America in 1950
I have begun collecting images for my next book about the Korean War. (I'm jumping my own timeline here - we'll get back to 1946 with the next post) Check out my PINTEREST board ~ America in 1950 Any corrections (sometimes it's hard to pinpoint 1950 exactly since most search engines want "the 50s") or suggestions for additional items would be most welcome.