https://youtu.be/KD_YRnuuKyY Al Jolson, born Asa Yoelson, was an American singer, comedian, and actor who lived from 1886-1950. In the 1920s, Jolson was immensely popular as America's highest-paid entertainer. In 1927 Jolson starred in The Jazz Singer, the first full feature film to have a sound track that included dialogue (though only the musical numbers and some select conversations were recorded for sound). Al Jolson entertained troops during WWII and the Korean War. He died shortly after returning home from performing for American troops in Korea in October 1950. Jolson's style was extroverted, sentimental and melodramatic as he popularized African-American music for white Americans who were otherwise not receptive to black performers. Often dubbed the king of "blackface" performers (a theatrical convention since the mid-19th century), Jolson unfortunately also popularized racial stereotypes. Source: Wikipedia https://youtu.be/PIaj7FNHnjQ
The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) was a fully functional hospital unit maintained by the U.S. Army Medical Corps in a combat zone. MASH units, established in August 1945, were deployed during the Korean War and later conflicts until 2006. The successor to the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital is the Combat Support Hospital. https://youtu.be/KoRFyr6cOWU The CBS TV comedy series MASH aired from 1972 to 1983. The series, derived from the 1970 feature film M*A*S*H, was, in turn, based on a 1968 novel by Richard Hooker's entitled MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors. https://youtu.be/8VEGEvDKkeM
Korea Blues – Fats Domino
Uncle Sam ain't no woman but he sure can take your manUncle Sam ain't no woman but he sure can take your manHe's taking them in the daylight to go to Korea and fightThe people over there are messed up, they are many very roughThe people over there are messed up, they are many very roughWe have to go there and show 'em what it means to be real toughSo pray for me baby I'll be thinkin' of you night and daySo pray for me baby I'll be thinkin' of you day and nightAnd with the help of the Maker every day will be allright Wikipedia Conscription in the United States (the draft) has been employed in all major conflicts including the American Revolution, Civil War, WWI, WWII, Korean War and the Vietnam War. America's first peacetime draft began in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. From 1940 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of conflict, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the United States Armed Forces that could not be filled through voluntary means. Source: Wikipedia
In late September 1950, after the Inchon landing, United Nations forces advanced slowly on Seoul against heavy, North Korean resistance. The North Korean Peoples Army, attempting to stall the UN offensive long enough to reinforce Seoul and withdraw troops from the south, launched a T-34 tank attack against advancing UN troops and a Yak bombing run on Inchon harbor. The North Korean tanks were destroyed and the Inchon bombing run did little damage. Source: Wikipedia U.S Marines firing at North Korean snipers in Seoul - September 1950. Wikipedia Entering Seoul, U.S. Marines encountered barricades and heavy resistance from North Korean machine guns, snipers and land mines as they fought house-to-house. After Seoul was recaptured, South Korean authorities summarily executed many individuals along with their families suspected of sympathizing with the North Korea invaders. These extra-judicial killings coincided with the Goyang Geunjeong Cave massacre of 153 civilians by police in the Goyang, Gyeonggi-do district.
King Solomon’s Mines
https://youtu.be/tmXgC7k-QB0 King Solomon's Mines was a popular novel written by the English adventure writer Sir H. Rider Haggard in 1885 that is often considered to be the origin of the lost world literary genre. The 1950 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film King Solomon's Mines starred Deborah Kerr, Stewart Granger and Richard Carlson.
Early Korean Air War
At the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States Air Force (USAF) had >1000 aircraft in the Pacific region. Immediately mustered against the North Korean invasion were F-80 Shooting Stars, F-82 Twin Mustangs, B-26 Invaders and B-29 Superfortresses. USAF aircraft were well-equipped and flew from many bases in Japan—out of North Korean reach. Douglas A-26 (designated B-26 between 1948 and 1965) Invader. - Wikipedia Additionally, air squadrons from Great Britain and Australia provided support for ground operations. At the onset of the Korean War the Republic of Korea Air Force had 1,800 personnel but only 22 aircraft. Korean Peoples Air Force. - Wikimedia The North Korean People's Air Force (KPAF) had 2000 personnel and 132 aircraft. From June 25 to July 20, 1950 North Korean aircraft waged a battle for air supremacy over South Korea. In the initial phase of the war, North Korean aircraft held air superiority over South Korea. However, several engagements over Seoul and Taejon ultimately ended in the destruction of the small KPAF. Despite unsuccessful UN ground action in the early stage of the Korean War, the air battle was successful for UN forces. Wikipedia After destruction of the small KPAF, the UN air force concentrated attacks on North Korean ground forces, inflicting heavy casualties. In addition, UN bombing of North Korean armor, supplies and ports, greatly hampered enemy efforts to penetrate the Pusan Perimeter. U.N. bombing continued relatively unhindered for six months of the war ~ until the ominous appearance of the Soviet-built MiG-15 fighter (presumably flying out of Manchuria). MiG-15. Wikimedia Commons
Hill 303 massacre
On August 17, 1950, on a hill above Waegwan, South Korea. Forty-one U.S Army prisoners of war were gunned down by troops of the North Korean Korean People's Army (KPA) during the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. During the Battle of Taegu, elements of the US 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division were surrounded by KPA troops crossing the Naktong River at Hill 303. Hill 303 Survivors - Wikipedia Most of the US troops escaped, but one platoon of mortar men misidentified KPA troops as Republic of Korea Army (ROK) reinforcements and was captured. KPA troops tried to move the American prisoners out of the battle, but were unable to do so because of a heavy U.S. counterattack. US forces eventually routed the North Koreans. But during their retreat, a KPA officer ordered the 41 American prisoners to be shot so they would not slow them down. Both sides confronted the massacre. US forces broadcast radio messages and dropped leaflets demanding the senior North Korean commanders be held responsible for the atrocity. KPA commanders laid out stricter guidelines for handling enemy captives. Source: Wikipedia
On September 15, 1950 U.S. Marines made a surprise amphibious landing at the strategic port of Incheon (formerly romanized as Inchŏn) on the west coast of Korea, about 100 miles south of the 38th parallel and 25 miles from Seoul. Although many among the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff had criticized the landing as too risky, United Nations Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur insisted on carrying out the bold landing. After the successful landing, American-led U.N. forces broke North Korean supply lines and pushed inland toward Communist-held Seoul. https://youtu.be/apJ_aMY03Sc
Peanuts Comic Strip
https://youtu.be/dKc8OTRBYXY Peanuts, an American comic strip, written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, ran from October 1950, to February 2000. 17,897 published Peanuts strips ran in over 2,600 newspapers. Translated into 21 languages, Peanuts had a readership of ~355 million in 75 countries. Source: Wikipedia https://youtu.be/AjX2VtqTpAU
Timetoast.com By September 1950 the North Korean Peoples Army (KPA) reached their farthest point of advance in South Korea. Although the KPA strength had been nearly cut in half and it lacked sufficient armor and supplies, the North Koreans reduced the area under control by United Nations forces to a 5,000-square-mile rectangle centered on the critical southeastern port of Pusan. https://youtu.be/MAvni45DVlY
https://youtu.be/BXYrOI4fOL0 Miles Dewey Davis III, (1926-1991) was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader and composer. In 1948, Davis formed a short-lived group with Gerry Mulligan, J.J. Johnson, Kenny Clarke, and Lee Konitz with arrangements that juxtaposed the flexible, improvisatory nature of bebop with a thickly textured orchestral sound. Tracks released by the group in 1949-50 changed the course of modern jazz and paved the way for the West Coast styles of the 1950s. Davis explored the trumpet’s middle register, experimenting with harmonies and rhythms and varying the phrasing of his improvisations. With the occasional exception of multi-note flurries, his melodic style was direct and un-ornamented, based on quarter notes and rich with inflections. The deliberation, pacing, and lyricism in his improvisations were striking.Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica https://youtu.be/g1VEifmf9Uw
Truman Seizes Railroads
https://youtu.be/6XI6CXrlNSo In August 1950, to prevent a pending strike during wartime, President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order directing the U.S. Army to seize control of America’s railroads. President Truman had previously intervened in post-war labor strikes. This time, however, America was at war and much of its economic and defense infrastructure was dependent upon the smooth functioning of railroads. In July 1950 settlement recommendations by an emergency board were rejected and, by August 25, a strike seemed imminent. Truman stated: "...governmental seizure [of the railroads] is imperative for the protection of American citizens as well as essential to the national defense and security of the Nation.” The railroad strike lasted until May 1952 when the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, the Order of Railway Conductors and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, accepted the administration’s terms and resumed work. Source: POLITICO
Korean War ~ Summer 1950
Well-trained and equipped, the North Korean People's Army swept rapidly south in the first phase of the Korean war. In contrast, the South's Republic of Korea forces were often disorganized and inclined to flee the battle field. http://www.emersonkent.com/ July 5, 1950The first U.S. Marines - leading the U.N. forces - joined battle shortly after landing on the Korean Peninsula. U.S. troops suffered heavy casualties and the four American divisions were driven back into a perimeter around the southern port city of Pusan. Pinterest
Task Force Smith
https://youtu.be/Qk4lKp1C3ls On July 5, 1950 the first engagement between United States forces and the North Korean People's Army (KPA) occurred near the city of Osan south of Seoul Korea.400 infantry men of Task Force Smith, supported by an artillery battery, were ordered to fight a rearguard action to delay the advancing KPA while additional U.S. troops arrived in Korea to form a defensive line to the south. Equipped only with a few 105 mm Howitzers, 2.36-in. rocket launchers and 57 mm recoilless rifles, Task Force Smith lacked effective weapons against the T-34 Soviet tanks of the KPA. History Central American Ground Forces Enter the Battle At 0816 the first American artillery fire of the Korean War hurtled through the air toward the North Korean tanks. The number two howitzer fired the first two rounds, and the other pieces then joined in the firing. The artillery took the tanks under fire at a range of approximately 4,000 yards, about 2,000 yards in front of the American infantry. The forward observer quickly adjusted the fire and shells began landing among the tanks. But the watching infantrymen saw the tanks keep on coming, undeterred by the exploding artillery shells. When the enemy tank column approached within 700 yards of the infantry position, the two recoilless rifles took it under fire. They scored direct hits, but apparently did not damage the tanks ... a bazooka from the ditch along the east side of the road fired twenty-two rockets at approximately fifteen yards' range against the rear of the tanks where their armor was weakest. Whether they were effective is doubtful. The two lead tanks, however, were stopped just through the pass when they came under direct fire of the single 105-mm. howitzer using HEAT ammunition.... The two damaged tanks pulled off to the side of the road, clearing the way for those following. One of the two caught fire and burned. Two men emerged from its turret with their hands up. A third jumped out with a burp gun in his hands and fired directly into a machine gun position, killing the assistant gunner. This unidentified machine gunner probably was the first American ground soldier killed in action in Korea. American fire killed the three North Koreans. The six rounds of HEAT ammunition at the forward gun were soon expended, leaving only the HE shells which ricocheted off the tanks. The third tank through the pass knocked out the forward gun and wounded one of its crew members. The tanks did not stop to engage the infantry; they merely fired on them as they came through. Following the first group of 8 tanks came others at short intervals, usually in groups of 4. These, too, went unhesitatingly through the infantry position and on down the road toward the artillery position. In all, there were 33 tanks in the column. The last passed through the infantry position by 0900, about an hour after the lead tanks had reached the saddle. In this hour, tank fire...
https://youtu.be/SKhyLCjIpvw SOURCE: Wikipedia Born Norma Jeane Mortenson in 1926, she began working as a model in 1944 using the name Jean Norman. By 1946, she had appeared on 33 magazine covers for publications such as Pageant, U.S. Camera, Laff, and Peek. In 1946 she was signed by 20th Century Fox, using the stage name Marilyn Monroe. She had bit parts in Dangerous Years (1947) and Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay! (1948). In 1948, with her hairline raised and hair bleached platinum blonde, she starred as a chorus girl in Ladies of the Chorus In 1949 she posed nude for photographer Tom Kelley. In 1950, after plastic surgery on her face, she had bit parts in Love Happy, A Ticket to Tomahawk, Right Cross and The Fireball. In 1950, she also had minor supporting roles in two critically-acclaimed films: Joseph Mankiewicz's All About Eve and John Huston's The Asphalt Jungle. PicClick
On June 25, 1950 the Korean People's Army (KPA) equipped with T-34 tanks and artillery support, advanced rapidly on the South Korea capital of Seoul. http://www.famousdaily.com/history/battle-of-seoul-north-korea-captures-seoul.html Sutori The Republic of Korea (ROK) Army, lacking both tanks and adequate anti-tank weapons could not stop the KPA advance. Additionally, South Korean forces blew up the bridge across the Han River, trapping their own soldiers and killing hundreds of refugees evacuating the city. Robert Neff Collection Capt. F. L. Scheiber/U.S. Army/Science Source By June 28, the KPA had captured Seoul. https://youtu.be/rk3mj3f5HQ0
Veterans Day was formerly known as Armistice Day, a U.S. legal holiday to honor the end of World War I on November 11, 1918. https://youtu.be/2A6HQtPWatc In 1938 U.S. legislation dedicated November 11 as a day to celebrate the cause of world peace— hereafter celebrated as Armistice Day. In 1954, after both WWII and the Korean War, the U.S. Congress amended the Act of 1938 by substituting the word "veterans" for the word "Armistice." November 11 became a day to honor American veterans of all wars. Veterans Day is distinct from Memorial Day, a U.S. public holiday in May. Veterans Day celebrates the service of all U.S. military veterans, while Memorial Day honors those who have died while in military service. Another military holiday, Armed Forces Day, occurs in May to honor both those who served in the U.S. military in the past and those who are presently serving.
Taiwan Strait Tension
https://youtu.be/wByvdYGfyiI Although U.S. policy in early 1950 was not directly poised to prevent a Communist Chinese invasion of the Nationalist Chinese stronghold on Taiwan, the outbreak of the Korean War changed the equation. On June 27, 1950, the United States Seventh Fleet sailed into the Taiwan Strait to prevent the Korean conflict from spreading south. The appearance of the Seventh Fleet caused the Chinese Communists to transfer troops poised for an invasion of Taiwan to the northern border of Korea. Source: Milestones: 1953–1960 - Office of the Historian Association for Diplomatic Studies & Training On 27 June 1950, President Truman issued the following statement: The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer independent nations and will now use armed invasion and war. It has defied the orders of the Security Council of the United Nations issued to preserve international peace and security. In these circumstances the occupation of Formosa by Communist forces would be a direct threat to the security of the Pacific area and to United States forces performing their lawful and necessary functions in that area. Accordingly, I have ordered the 7th Fleet to prevent any attack on Formosa. As a corollary of this action, I am calling upon the Chinese Government on Formosa to cease all air and sea operations against the mainland. The 7th Fleet will see that this is done. The determination of the future status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations.
INVASION OF SOUTH KOREA
On June 25, 1950 ~ 90,000 soldiers of the Korean People's Army (KPA), well-trained and equipped with modern tanks, trucks, artillery and small arms by the USSR, crossed the 38th parallel in eight divisions and an armored brigade to invade South Korea. https://youtu.be/-NA4NytWYT8 The 98,000-man Republic of Korea Army (ROK) was incompletely-trained and under-equipped with no tanks, inadequate artillery and few aircraft. Frank Praytor @ Stars & Stripes https://youtu.be/Ivf7UBMjDv0 Aided only by a 500-man U.S. Korean Military Advisory Group (KMAG), the ROK army was quickly overwhelmed as the KPA advanced rapidly toward Seoul. CBS News
Eve of Korean War
researchgate.net The breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s opened previously-closed archives that contained information on Soviet-North Korean-Chineserelations during the Cold War—of particular interest, correspondence between Josef Stalin, Mao Zedong and Kim Il Sung. ______________________________________________________________________________SOURCE: Neglected Questions on the “Forgotten War”: South Korea and the United States on the Eve of the Korean War It is well known that South Korean PresidentSyngman Rhee equaled his North Koreancounterpart’s ambitions to use military force toreunite his homeland, and that the UnitedStates was determined to prevent his doing soon his own. Photo by Richard Jones Contrary to traditional views that charged Stalin with initiating plans for North Korea’s southern attack, the documents portray Kim Il Sung as eager to initiate war with South Korea and Stalin as reluctant to give Kim the green light to attack. The war’s origins are thus rooted in Korean nationalist sentiment rather than as part of a Soviet-led global communist revolution. Britannica The documents also suggest that Stalin offered Kim his blessing to attack sometime in late 1949, but cautioned that the Soviet Union would not participate beyond supplying North Korea with weapons. As a precautionary step he urged the North Korean leader to approach Mao for any further assistance he needed. For an excellent discussion of the issues on the eve of the Korean War, read this article from the Asia-Pacific Journal: Neglected Questions on the “Forgotten War”: South Korea and the United States on the Eve of the Korean War
Dean Acheson ~ Pacific Defense
https://youtu.be/i9c4c6J9GfM In January 1950 U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson gave a speech to the National Press Club intended to outline the Pacific defense posture of the United States. He named Japan and the Philippines in the U.S. defense plan, but did not explicitly include Korea or the Republic of China on Taiwan. He further mentioned: “so far as the military security of other areas in the Pacific is concerned, it must be clear that no person can guarantee these areas against military attack.” In January 1950 , the U.S. Congress rejected a $60 million aid bill for South Korea. Some observers regarded Acheson's January 12, 1950 speech before the National Press Club to mean that the United States support for the government of South Korea was limited—suggesting the U.S. would not intervene if North Korea (assisted by the USSR) invaded the South. Soviet archives first opened in the 1980s however, found that the speech had little if any impact on Communist deliberations. New York Times, April 26,1995
The Martian Chronicles
The Martian Chronicles was published in 1950 by Ray Bradbury as a series of 27 connected short stories about humans fleeing a devastated earth to colonize Mars where they conflict with aboriginal Martians. In 1980 NBC produced the book as a television miniseries starring Rock Hudson, Darren McGavin, Bernadette Peters, Roddy McDowall, Fritz Weaver, Barry Morse, and Maria Schell. https://youtu.be/FUKPso0EH9Q
Kim Il-sung pre-Korean War
Kim Il-sung Kim Il-sung's life Before the Korean War Kim Il-sung’s life has been greatly mythologized by North Korean historians. After reviewing the literature (including Kim’s autobiography Reminiscences: With the Century) and interviewing Korean historians on my recent trip to Seoul and Vladivostok, here is my take on the actual life of the North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung leading up to the onset of the Korean War: Kim was born as Kim Sŏng-ju into a Presbyterian family in a village near Pyongyang Korea in 1912 Some consider the name he later assumed (Kim Il-sung) had previously been used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance named Kim Kyung-cheonBecause of relative famine and Kim’s father's involvement in anti-Japanese activities, the family moved to Manchuria in 1920 Kim attended middle school in China’s Jilin province until 1930 when he was jailed for underground Marxist activities Along with other Koreans, Kim joined the Chinese-led Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army (NEAJUA) in 1935 Kim was a bona fide resistance fighter, but not the main leader of anti-Japanese forces in Manchuria Sometime after 1935, Kim assumed the name Kim Il-sung (Hangul meaning = completed/finished/succeeded sun/day) In 1937, while commanding a few hundred men, his raid on Pochonbo, a small Japanese-held town on the Korean border, brought Kim military acclaim Kim Il-sung (Back row, 3rd from left ) in 1938 in command of the Sixth Division of the Second Directional Army in Jilin, China Japanese forces in Manchuria - Alchetron The Japanese, considering Kim an effective guerrilla leader, put a price on his head and labelled him “Tiger” In 1940, along with other Korean guerrillas, Kim escaped the increasingly-effective Japanese search and destroy forces by crossing the Amur River into the Primorsky Krai region of the Soviet Union Because Joseph Stalin had banished ethnic Koreans living in the area to central Asia in the 1930s, Koreans were not welcome in urban areas of Vladivostok and Khabarovsk at that time Kim and his troops were sent to the small town of Vyatskoye, 70 km north of Khabarovsk where they received indoctrination in Soviet Communist ideology and further military trainingAdditionally, the Soviets used Koreans fluent in Japanese for intelligence purposes—Kim Il Sung was fluent in Korean, Chinese and Japanese Vyatskoye Russia Kim Il-sung In 1942 Kim was appointed a Captain in the 88th Special Rifle Brigade of the Soviet ArmyComposed of three Chinese and one Korean batallion, the 88th Special Rifle Brigade was under the command of a Zhou Baozhong, former leader of the NEAJUAThe Korean Battalion of the 88th may have made some cross-border raids into Manchuria for reconnaissance and intelligence gathering from 1942-45, but the USSR was not at war with Japan at that time and Kim was not involved in any major engagements with Japanese military then Kim Il-sung 1945 The Soviets groomed Kim for leadership in postwar North Korea and sent him back by ship from Vladivostok in the fall of 1945 (the official North Korean story is that he remained in Manchuria leading...
Cost of Living
https://youtu.be/mzhUuMrkdcA In 1950: a new house cost $8,450.00 the average income per year was $3,210.00 a gallon of gas was 18 cents the average cost of new car was $1,510.00 A few more prices from the 50's and how much things costChrysler New Yorker $43471958 Chevrolet Corvette $3631Men's All Wool Suits $28.90Square dance Cotton Check Dress $3.29Electric Portable Singer Sewing Machine $19.90Ronson Electric Shaver $28.50Rib Roast 29 cents per poundRitz Crackers 32 centsRollaway Beds $14.95Ring 1 carat Diamond $399.00Mechanical Adding Machine $3.98 Source: The People History
This lovely, traditional Korean song is >600 years old. The refrain Ariyang... is apparently nonsensical. There are many versions of the lyrics reflecting love, loss, resistance and patriotism. Arirang, Arirang, Arariyo...Crossing over Arirang Pass.The one who abandoned meShall not walk even 4 kilometers before their feet hurt. Just as there are many stars in the clear sky, There are also many dreams in our heart. There, over there, that mountain is Baekdu Mountain, Where, even in the middle of winter days, flowers bloom. The tune has been sung by Korean guerrillas in Manchuria fighting Imperial Japanese forces, heart-broken patriots in Chosen (Korea) under Japanese rule and wistful, modern day Koreans North and South. Most interesting, is that people in Imperial Japan also loved the song and recorded many versions. Source: Arirang - Wikipedia Arirang is revered in both North and South Korea and is a bittersweet expression of love of country. Here is a North Korean version~ https://youtu.be/XXQgyvLzKPs Here is a modern South Korean version~ https://youtu.be/SHO3t1xayeo What a universal song. Even the U.S. Marines sing it! https://youtu.be/w1FMKeAKX8E
CIA Mind Control
https://youtu.be/NUW-frxo2X4 In 1950 the director of the U.S. Central Intelligence authorized Project BLUEBIRD to discover methods of: conditioning personnel to prevent unauthorized extraction of informationcontrol of an individual by the application of special interrogation techniquesmemory enhancementpreventing hostile control of CIA personnel In 1951 Project Artichoke was established to determine whether a person could be involuntarily made to perform an act of attempted assassination. Project Artichoke also studied: hypnosisforced morphine addiction and withdrawaluse of other chemicals (including LSD) to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states https://youtu.be/U1GUJMTmoMY In 1953 the MKUltra project used numerous methods to manipulate people's mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, and other forms of torture. https://youtu.be/b01DL8DTUGM
Armed Forces Day
https://youtu.be/x2y10XtqXTc In 1950 United States President Harry Truman issued a proclamation: "Armed Forces Day, Saturday, May 20, 1950, marks the first combined demonstration by America's defense team of its progress, under the National Security Act, towards the goal of readiness for any eventuality. It is the first parade of preparedness by the unified forces of our land, sea, and air defense." B-36 bombers flew over the capitals of every state10,000 troops and veterans marched in Washington, DC.More than 36,000 participated in a parade in New York CityParades and air shows were held across the country
https://youtu.be/IwDnUeCh35M 1950 Philadelphia Zoo TV commercial Zoo Parade, a popular Sunday afternoon TV show on NBC from 1950-57 was hosted by Zoo director Marlin Perkins. ~ The show was actually shot at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo (I couldn't find a short video). findagrave.com Marlin Perkins rose from temporary labor at the St. Louis Zoo to become zookeeper/TV safari guide on Zoo Parade and ultimately one of America's best-known zoologists on the Emmy-awarded TV show Wild Kingdom from 1963-88. Throughout his career, Perkins travelled through the world's jungles, veldts and deserts to protect endangered species and enlighten TV viewers about animals that are feared or killed because of superstition.
https://youtu.be/mxmsBePZwHY In January 1950, the German-born physicist Klaus Fuchs, working for the British mission in the Manhattan Project, was arrested for passing key documents to the Soviets throughout WWII. Fuchs identified his courier as the American Harry Gold. Gold, arrested in May 1950, then identified David Greenglass as an additional source. In June 1950, under arrest by the FBI, Greenglass confessed to his courier role and also claimed his sister Ethel's husband Julius Rosenberg had passed secrets to the Soviets. Julius Rosenberg was arrested on suspicion of espionage in June 1950; his wife Ethel was arrested in August 1950. Another accused conspirator, Morton Sobell, fled but was arrested by U.S. forces in Mexico.In March 1951, the Rosenbergs were convicted of espionage and sentenced to death. After a stay of execution and a world-wide campaign for clemency, the Rosenbergs were executed in June 1953. SOURCE: Wikipedia
In 1950 the mummified corpse of the Tollund Man who lived during the 4th century BC was found in a bog on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark. Tollund Man's body was so well-preserved that it was first thought to be that of a recent murder victim. Although initially thought to be a hanged criminal, subsequent scholarship suggests that he was a human sacrifice because of the position of his body and closed eyes and mouth.
https://youtu.be/l6x7fzcx5oc Beginning in early 1950, the newly-established People's Republic of China (PRC) Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou En-lai met with Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and Foreign Minister Andrei Vyshinsky in Moscow to discuss an alliance for mutual assistance and defense. In the treaty, the USSR agreed to provide a $300 million and return control to the PRC of a major railroad and the Manchurian cities of Port Arthur (Lüshun Port) and Dairen (Dailian) which had been seized by Russian forces near the end of WWII. The mutual defense section of the agreement primarily concerned any future aggression by Japan or "any other state" directly or indirectly associated with Japan. Zhou En-lai declared that the linking of the two Communist nations created a force that was “impossible to defeat.” Many U.S. commentators saw the treaty as proof that Communism was a monolithic movement directed primarily by the Kremlin. An article in the New York Times referred to the PRC as a Soviet “satellite.”
Cigarettes Linked to Cancer
https://youtu.be/gCMzjJjuxQI 1949 Camel ad In 1950 The Journal of the American Medical Association published two articles linking smoking and cancer: Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiological Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Study of Six Hundred and Eighty-Four Proved Cases by E.L. Wynder and Dr. E.A. GrahamCancer and Tobacco Smoking: A Preliminary Report" was authored by M.L. Levin, H. Goldstein and P. R. GerhardtSince then a relationship between smoking and many other conditions has been established. Internal tobacco industry documents released through litigation and whistleblowers has subsequently revealed major corporate deceit in addressing the public regarding the dangers of smoking. https://youtu.be/MbHMZ6WSzlc John Wayne contracted cancer twice: in 1964, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and had his left lung removed, and in 1979 he contracted stomach cancer, which took his life. He felt his lung cancer was the result of his 5-pack-a-day, unfiltered cigarette habit. ~ Medical Bag In 1964 a landmark U.S. Surgeon Generals' smoking and health report linked smoking cigarettes with dangerous health effects, including lung cancer and heart disease. Since that time, the rate of cigarette smoking among Americans has been dramatically reduced.
Understanding Post-WWII East Asia
East Asia ~ Wikimedia I am currently on a trip to Seoul, Vladivostok and Tokyo to research locations for my upcoming historical-fiction novel covering the years 1940-1950. My protagonists are: a young Korean physician, trained in the Imperial Japanese medical system in colonial Korea (Chōsen), who joins anti-Japanese guerrillas in Manchuria and ultimately, escapes into Russiaa US Army officer (Nick from my first book Enemy in the Mirror: Love and Fury in the Pacific War), stationed at MacArthur's headquarters in occupied Japan, who is abruptly plunged into the battle for Korea Britannica My current understanding of this post-WWII epoch (1940-1950) is this: ~In an effort to reunite the country, both North Korea and South Korea were authoritarian states that assumed very aggressive military postures in the late 1940s—both claim the other actually started the war. ~Just recovering from the devastation of World War II, the USSR was not in favor of precipitating nor encouraging new wars in Asia—nevertheless, the Soviets could not turn their back on emerging Communist states. Although a few Soviet pilots participated in the war, Russian involvement in the Korean War was mainly the provision of equipment, training and technical support. ~ The United States, fearing South Korean President Syngman Rhee would start a war, restricted rearmament of the South to defensive efforts and provided a small advisory force for the Korean military. Deeply immersed in Cold War ideology, the U.S. government was convinced the USSR was directly behind all efforts to extend Communism globally. Fearing a "domino effect" in East Asia, the U.S. government saw no alternative but direct military intervention when North Korea invaded the South. ~ Communist China, emerging from a long civil war (temporarily interrupted by common cause against Imperial Japan) was sympathetic to North Korea but, like the USSR, also not wanting to get involved in a new war. Grateful to Koreans for their assistance in the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, Communist China felt an obligation to support North Korea, but resisted becoming involved in the war—until American troops were at the Yalu River and China responded with massive armed force. MOAweb Dear Reader: Any comments or alternative explanations would be greatly appreciated
McMinnvile Oregon UFO - Wikipedia In May 1950 photographs of UFOs taken on a farm near McMinnville, Oregon were published in Life magazine and nationwide newspapers. Although some skeptics believe UFOs are a hoax, many ufologists argue that the photos are genuine, and show an unidentified object in the sky. Newsweek magazine devised the following UFO Sighting credibility scale: One point for sightings with multiple witnessesAdditional point for an expert witness (a pilot, air traffic controller, military or government official)One point for sightings of an object <500 feet awayOne point for picture evidenceAdditional point for film of a moving UFOAdditional point for flight inconsistent with flight as humans know it.Two points for a physical effect (e.g., car light breaks, extreme heat, scorch marks on ground)Three points for seeing an animated pilot Minus three points if military/government body discredits sighting This book, reviewing startling reports from qualified observers such as pilots, generals and government officials convinces me there is real substance in many UFO reports. https://youtu.be/S4PYI6TzqYk
USSR Repatriates German POWs
https://youtu.be/5Skoh6n2SB4 In 1950, while releasing 17,538 German soldiers, the Soviet Union claimed it had completed repatriation of all WWII German POWs numbering 1,939,063. Since the Russian TASS news agency had reported 3.5 million German POWs held in the USSR in 1945, West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer demanded to know what had happened to >1.5 million still missing. The U.S. State Department described the Soviet claim as "fantastic and absurd" while estimating 200,000 German POWs were still in Soviet labor camps. Source: German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Nuclear “Doom” Towns
https://youtu.be/wgpo0qAfwDk In the 1950s, nuclear testing began at the Nevada National Security Site with nuclear bombs mounted on top of a 1500 foot detonation tower so the fireball wouldn't damage the monitoring equipment. "Doom" towns were assembled with shops, gas stations, and homes made of brick and wood . After the blast ~The Atlantic Building interiors held life-size, family mannequins wearing various types of clothing to evaluate how different fabrics would be affected during the energy bursts and extreme heat.
Beat the Clock
https://youtu.be/H0cBnWgZOKg First televised by CBS in 1950, Beat the Clock was an American television game show that required its contestants to accomplish various stunts within 60 seconds. Contestants were chosen from the studio audience and usually were married couples. The show had several sponsors over its run, with the most longstanding being the electronics company Sylvania. After its first run ended in 1961, Beat the Clock was revived several times over the years. Its most recent revival began on Universal Kids on February 6, 2018. https://youtu.be/bwKErX9NyHU
Brittanica.com By the end of 1949, most of mainland China was under Communist control. Official Communist figures counted some 1.5 million dead and wounded among the People’s Liberation Army. ~600,000 Nationalists troops were killed in combat, while roughly three times that many defected to the Communists. Nearly 7 million Nationalist troops were captured during four years of combat. Approximately 5 million civilians died as a result of combat, famine, and disease. As they steadily lost ground to the Communist forces, Chinese Nationalist leaders left mainland China for the island of Taiwan, where they established their new capital. In 1542 Portuguese sailors named the uncharted island (福爾摩沙) Ilha Formosa (beautiful island). With the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture in 1684, the current Chinese name Taiwan (臺灣) became official. https://youtu.be/I4Sj7OP-x48
American Shopping Mall
Pinterest In April 1950 Northgate Center, the first urban shopping mall, was opened in Seattle.Originally an open air complex where the stores faced each other, Northgate began adding a roof over the concourse in 1962 and was completely enclosed by 1974. https://youtu.be/CZyMiyYZr4Y Today.com In August 2019 Seattle’s premiere retailer, Nordstrom, an original Mall tenant, chose to leave Northgate. One reason for the Nordstrom closure is the National Hockey League Seattle plans to turn part of the area into its headquarters—but the move is widely interpreted as signaling the end of the suburban shopping mall era that began in Seattle in 1950. Eventually, the American fascination with malls hit a feverish peak—in 1990, 19 new malls opened across America. But beginning in the late 1990s, the culture that once fed the American mall started to change. Shopping centers that hadn't been renovated in years began to show signs of wear and tear, and the middle-aged, middle-class shoppers that once flooded their shops began to disappear, turning the once sterile suburban shopping centers into perceived havens for crime. Increasingly rundown and redundant, malls started turning into ghost towns—first losing shoppers and then losing stores. Today, the vacancy rate in America's regional malls hovers around 7.9 percent; at its peak, in 2011, vacancy at regional malls was 9.4 percent. Source: The Smithsonian https://youtu.be/s0g1ZpXypo0
NSC 68 ~ No Preventive War
https://youtu.be/7ugz3eS1R6Q NSC 68 the United States Objectives and Programs for National Security was issued by U.S. President Truman's National Security Council in April 1950. Classified top secret until 1975, the document defined American foreign policy during the Truman presidency designed to "assure the integrity and vitality of our free society." NSC 68 stated the Soviet Union's fundamental design was "the complete subversion or forcible destruction of the machinery of government and structure of society in the countries of the non-Soviet world." NSC 68 ruled out a pre-emptive U.S. nuclear strike against the USSR—but concluded that a rapid and sustained build-up of the political, economic and military strength of the free world was necessary to "frustrate the Kremlin design of a world dominated by its will."
First Black NBA Player
https://youtu.be/08IK0FjcPss In 1950 Chuck Cooper an All-American basketball player from Duquesne University (a private Catholic school in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania) was selected in the second round by the Boston Celtics. Cooper thus became the first African-American to play in the professional National Basketball Association league. After college, Cooper first signed onto the Harlem Globetrotters, but in April 1950, was drafted into the NBA when the Celtics chose him on the 14th overall pick. Later in the draft, the Washington Capitols, a charter team in the Basketball Association of America (forerunner of the NBA), selected Earl Lloyd and Harold Hunter. https://youtu.be/6mgcAOLm2sI
https://youtu.be/e7hpZbGd2Uw In 1950, the first public demonstration of the RCA system for color television, the all electronic tri-color picture tube, was made at a press conference in Washington, DC. The RCA system was eventually accepted by the Federal Communications Commission over a competing system designed by CBS, and became the standard for broadcasting.
U.S. Navy Plane Shot Down
Consolidated Vultee PB4Y-2 Privateer In April 1950, Soviet fighters shot down a US Navy PB4Y-2 Privateer patrol bomber over the Baltic Sea. At the time, Privateers were used by the US Navy for signals intelligence flights off of the coast of the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. The Soviet Foreign Ministry acknowledged the attack, but stated the aircraft was flying in Soviet airspace, and had fired on Soviet fighters when they attempted to signal it to land. The Soviet government also stated it had no information about survivors from this flight. American search and rescue efforts were unsuccessful, but two unmanned life rafts and some wreckage were eventually recovered. The United States maintained that the crew members were captured and held in Soviet Gulags until their death. The Soviets denied this. Source: Remembering Crew Members of U.S. Navy PB4Y-2 Shoot Down, April 8, 1950 – And Shocking Cold War Case Study – Station HYPO https://youtu.be/sPvB76l1AQE
Father of the Bride
https://youtu.be/ok7pNklkNhA IN 1950 director Vincente Minelli's comedy Father of the Bride (adapted from a book of the same title by Edward Streeter) told the story of a man (Spencer Tracy) dealing with his daughter's upcoming wedding. The cast included Joan Bennett, Elizabeth Taylor, Don Taylor, Billie Burke and Leo G. Carroll. Father of the Bride was one of the top grossing films of the year and received Academy Award nominations for best leading actor, best picture and best screenplay. Steve Martin and Diane Keaton starred in the 1991 version Father of the Bride and its 1995 sequel Father of the Bride-Part 2. https://youtu.be/o-JEkllZPDE
There Will Come Soft Rains
https://youtu.be/bv_D39zKZzc In May 1950, at the height of the Cold War, science fiction writer Ray Bradbury published the short story There Will Come Soft Rains in Collier's magazine. Later that year the story was included in The Martian Chronicles . Plot Summary: An overnight nuclear catastrophe desolates a city in California except for a single preserved house where the daily routine continues – automatic systems within the home prepare breakfast, clean the house, make beds, wash dishes, and address the former residents without any knowledge of their current state as burnt silhouettes on one of the walls. In spite of the homeowners' evident deaths, the house's systems zealously uphold its sanctity, frightening off surviving birds by closing the window shutters. One afternoon, a dog is allowed into the house when it is recognized as the family pet, but it soon dies. That evening, the house recites to the absent hostess her favorite poem, "There Will Come Soft Rains" by Sara Teasdale. A kitchen fire spreads throughout the house. Although systems desperately attempt to salvage the house, it burns to the ground overnight. At dawn a voice from the lone surviving wall endlessly repeats the time and date. https://youtu.be/rGW48EItyco
On May Day 1950 fake Communists took over Mosinee Wisconsin. Conceived by John Decker, a WWII veteran lawyer, and backed by the American Legion, the event was intended to highlight what liberties Americans would lose in an actual Communist takeover. picclick.com Ironically, the event planned for the traditional May Day worker's holiday, was joined by American Communist Party members who distributed issues of the Daily Worker around town asking: “So this is supposed to be communism; says who?”
In May 1950 the magazine Astounding Science Fiction published Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health by L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics divides the mind into: (1) the conscious analytical mind (2) the subconscious reactive mind (3) the somatic mind Scientologists believe the reactive mind interferes with a person's ethics, awareness, happiness, and sanity. Scientology auditors employ a procedure utilizing an e-meter while asking questions to determine the content of the reactive mind. https://youtu.be/rDyNoativPA Scientology procedures and tactics (including intimidation of critics) are highly controversial.Controversies include Scientology's stance on psychiatry, its legitimacy as a religion, its aggressive attitude against critics, allegations of mistreatment of members, its predatory financial practices and perceived exploitative practices. https://youtu.be/Uraz0CExF2E
B-36 Crash~British Columbia
https://youtu.be/uLnagDIlfZQ In February 1950 a US Air Force B-36 crashed near the coast of northern British Columbia during a simulated nuclear attack on San Francisco. A Mark 4 nuclear bomb, which lacked the plutonium core needed for a nuclear blast, was dropped over the ocean before the plane crashed. 12 of 17 men on board survived. Wikipedia The Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" was a strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force from 1949 to 1959.The largest mass-produced, piston-engine aircraft ever built, the B-36 was the first bomber capable of delivering U.S. nuclear weapons over a range of 10,000 mi (16,000 km) without refuelling. Entering service in 1948, the B-36 was the primary nuclear weapons bomber of Strategic Air Command (SAC) until it was replaced by the jet-powered Boeing B-52 Stratofortress in 1955. In 2016 a Canadian diver apparently recovered the bomb https://youtu.be/rFZXoV988EI
Mao and Stalin
Transcripts of the December 1949 and January 1950 sessions between Mao Tse-tung and Joseph Stalin were obtained from Soviet archives by the New York Times in 1995, Moscow December 1949: The first meeting between Mao Tse-tung and Joseph Stalin took place only months after Mao's revolutionary army had taken control of China. Mao asked Stalin to send "volunteer" pilots or secret military detachments to speed up the conquest of Formosa (Taiwan). Stalin only agreed to consider it. Wikipedia Moscow February 1950 - Joseph Stalin and Mao Tse-tung signed a mutual defense treaty which opened what the United States saw as a new front in the cold war. But the new records and recently released documents from Chinese archives suggest that the alliance did not have a strong foundation and may have been foredoomed.
When the Japanese invasion of Asia threatened America’s rubber supply during World War II, chemists at General Electric began looking for a synthetic substitute. James Wright stumbled upon ... a stretchy material that withstood decay and bounced 25 percent higher than rubber. When left untouched, this “solid liquid” flowed in slow motion and when struck sharply, it broke into pieces. Wright failed to find a wartime use for the goofy goo. Afterward, this “bouncing putty” or “nutty putty” amused guests at parties but did little else until toy marketer Peter Hodgson decided to list it as a novelty ...for a dollar, just in time for Easter. After a New Yorker article featured Silly Putty in 1950, orders topped 250,000 in three days. Millions have sold every year since...Astronauts even took it aboard Apollo 8 to stick down tools in zero gravity! Source: National Toy Hall of Fame
FBI Ten Most Wanted List
https://youtu.be/nWgn0lb9q3A In March 1950 the FBI officially released a list of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives designed to increase law enforcement's ability to capture dangerous fugitives. If fugitives were captured, died, had charges dropped or were no longer considered a dangerous menace to society, the FBI removed them from the Ten Most Wanted List and replaced them with a new entry. As of 2018, the FBI had featured a total of 519 criminals in the 10 Most Wanted rundown. The Bureau says that 486 of those individuals were eventually captured, with the publicity of the list being a key reason. Of those 486, 162 were apprehended based on information shared by a tip. ~11 Facts About the FBI's 10 Most Wanted List
Einstein Warns of Arms Race
https://youtu.be/K4MjwIFoPn0 Transcript: The Eleanor Roosevelt Show." NBC Radio February 1950 ALBERT EINSTEIN (Physicist): ... The idea of achieving security through national armament is, at the present state of military technique, a disastrous illusion. On the part of the U.S.A. this illusion has been particularly fostered by the fact that this country succeeded first in producing an atomic bomb. The belief seemed to prevail that in the end it would be possible to achieve decisive military superiority... This mechanistic, technical-military psychological attitude has had its inevitable consequences. Every single act in foreign policy is governed exclusively by one viewpoint: how do we have to act in order to achieve utmost superiority over the opponent in case of war? Establishing military bases at all possible strategically important points on the globe. Arming and economic strengthening of potential allies. Within the country: concentration of tremendous financial power in the hands of the military; militarization of the youth; close supervision of the loyalty of the citizens, in particular, of the civil servants, by a police force growing more conspicuous every day. Intimidation of people of independent political thinking. Subtle indoctrination of the public by radio, press, and schools. Growing restriction of the range of public information under the pressure of military secrecy. The armament race between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., originally supposed to be a preventive measure, assumes hysterical character. On both sides, the means to mass destruction are perfected with feverish haste - behind the respective walls of secrecy. The hydrogen bomb appears on the public horizon as a probably attainable goal. Its accelerated development has been solemnly proclaimed by the President. If it is successful, radioactive poisoning of the atmosphere and hence annihilation of any life on earth has been brought within the range of technical possibilities. The ghostlike character of this development lies in its apparently compulsory trend. Every step appears as the unavoidable consequence of the preceding one. In the end, there beckons more and more clearly general annihilation. Is there any way out of this impasse created by man himself? All of us, and particularly those who are responsible for the attitude of the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., should realize that we may have vanquished an external enemy, but have been incapable of getting rid of the mentality created by the war. It is impossible to achieve peace as long as every single action is taken with a possible future conflict in view. The leading point of view of all political action should therefore be: what can we do to bring about a peaceful coexistence and even loyal cooperation of the nations? The first problem is to do away with mutual fear and distrust. Solemn renunciation of violence (not only with respect to means of mass destruction) is undoubtedly necessary. Such renunciation, however, can be effective only if at the same time a supranational judicial and executive body is set up empowered to decide questions of immediate concern to the security of the nations. Even a declaration of...
Radio Free Europe
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4pQh2PjdziQ&t=65s Headquartered in Munich Germany, Radio Free Europe was founded as an anti-communist propaganda platform in 1949 by the National Committee for a Free Europe (a CIA front organization). Although clearly Western propaganda, Radio Free Europe provided a counterpoint to monolithic Communist media and attracted many listeners in Soviet bloc countries. Aware of its appeal, Communist governments frequently infiltrated Radio Free Europe headquarters, and regularly jammed its signals. https://youtu.be/fHzxjxtnXSo In the post Cold War era, Radio Free Europe continues to broadcast from Prague providing news and information to countries where independent media reporting is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed.
https://youtu.be/PUwmA3Q0_OE YearTotal world population(mid-year figures)Ten-year growthrate (%)19502,556,000,05318.9%19603,039,451,02322.019703,706,618,16320.219804,453,831,71418.519905,278,639,78915.220006,082,966,42912.6201016,848,932,92910.7202017,584,821,1448.7203018,246,619,3417.3204018,850,045,8895.6205019,346,399,468— Projected.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Database. SEPT. 6, 2018 — According to the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2017 National Population Projections by 2030, all baby boomers will be older than age 65. This will expand the size of the older population so that 1 in every 5 residents will be retirement age. By 2035, there will be 78.0 million people 65 years and older compared to 76.7 million (previously 76.4 million) under the age of 18.
First Kidney Transplant
https://youtu.be/EP9gnlmEyo8 In June 1950 Dr. Richard Lawler performed the first successful kidney transplantation. The donor kidney was removed from a patient who had died of cirrhosis of the liver. The recipient was a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, (PKD), a genetic disorder with multiple fluid-filled cysts typically in both kidneys.Transplantation was risky but the only real option for survival for the patient, since renal dialysis was not yet widely available. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/polycystic-kidney-disease/what-is-pkd The transplanted kidney functioned for ~ 53 days. 10 months after transplantation it was rejected and removed. With PKD in both of her kidneys, the patient's remaining kidney functioned at ~10%, enabling her to live another 5 years when she died of unrelated cardiac disease. This first kidney transplantation was conducted prior to development of immunosuppressant drugs and tissue typing which would have helped prevent organ rejection.
https://youtu.be/3FlVhQTIL1Q Sponsored by Lipton Tea, Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts was broadcast on CBS radio and television from 1946 until 1958. Godfrey was also hosting Arthur Godfrey and His Friends at the same time. Arthur Godfrey delivered commercials in a laid-back manner and often spoke irreverently about subjects that came up on his show. His easygoing style and dry wit attracted a strong following for several years. https://youtu.be/vAixx8G2wzU Some talent featured on Godfrey's show, such as the McGuire Sisters, went on to successful careers. https://youtu.be/TRSAbWIi478
Diners Club Card
https://youtu.be/iR5QYkdiaq4 In February 1950 the Diners Club issued the first credit card which only allowed charges at restaurants. By the end of the year, Diners Club had 20,000 members. In 1950 the company charged participating establishments 7% and billed cardholders $5 per year. By the mid-1960s, Diners Club had 1.3 million cardholders. Diners Club International was acquired by Citigroup in 1981. In 2008, Discover Financial Services purchased Diners Club International from Citibank for $165 million. Average Credit Card Processing Fees 2019The average credit card processing cost for a retail business where cards are swiped is roughly 1.95% – 2% for Visa, Mastercard, and Discover transactions. The average cost for card-not-present businesses, such as online shops, is roughly 2.30% – 2.50%.
U.S. Reveals H-Bomb Plans
In 1949 the United States had lost its nuclear supremacy when the Soviet Union successfully detonated an atomic bomb at their test site in Kazakhstan. https://youtu.be/ZQOZp4ThymU USSR conducts its first atomic bomb test - 1949 Several weeks after a successful Soviet atomic bomb test, Klaus Fuchs, a scientist in the U.S. nuclear program, was discovered spying for the Soviet Union. These two events, and the fact that the USSR had access to American research information regarding the construction of the hydrogen bomb, led Truman to make this public announcement on January 31, 1950: “It is part of my responsibility as commander in chief of the Armed Forces to see to it that our country is able to defend itself against any possible aggressor,” Truman said. “Accordingly, I have directed the Atomic Energy Commission to continue its work on all forms of atomic weapons, including the so-called hydrogen or superbomb. Like all other work in the field of atomic weapons, it is being and will be carried forward on a basis consistent with the overall objectives of our program for peace and security.” Source: Politico
Klaus Fuchs Atomic Spy
https://youtu.be/mqQ5_Na8DIc The German theoretical physicist Klaus Fuchs helped develop the first effective atomic bomb at Los Alamos during the WWII Manhattan Project. German born, Fuchs fled Nazi Germany and became a British citizen in August 1942. As a long-time Communist sympathizer, Fuchs soon began providing Soviet KGB operatives with classified information on the progress of Britain’s atomic energy research. In 1943, Fuchs went to Columbia University in New York with a British delegation of scientists to work on the Manhattan Project. In 1944 he began releasing classified information to a KGB agent in America. In August 1944 Fuchs was transferred to Los Alamos where he calculated the approximate energy yield of an atomic explosion, and specialized in researching implosion methods. In addition to secrets regarding the American atomic bomb project, Fuchs also passed detailed information about the hydrogen bomb to the Soviets. At the end of the war, Fuchs returned to England and continued his work on the British atomic bomb project. In 1949 decrypted cables from the U. S. Army Signal Intelligence Service revealed Fuchs was a Soviet spy. Fuchs was arrested in January 1950 and charged with violating Britain's Official Secrets Act. After his testimony led to the arrests of KGB agents (including Julius and Ethel Rosenberg) he was released after nine of his 14 year prison sentence. In 1959 Fuchs returned to the (East) German Democratic Republic as Deputy Director of the Central Institute for Nuclear Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf laboratory. In 1979 he received the Karl Marx Medal of Honor.
https://youtu.be/YChfpVD5xpk PROCLAMATION 2889 - May 22, 1950 PRAYER FOR PEACE, MEMORIAL DAY Since war is the world's most terrible scourge, we should do all in our power to prevent its recurrence.It was the hope of mankind that with the cessation of hostilities of World War II the way would be open to founding a permanent peace. Instead, that war has left the world in a state of continued unrest. Accordingly, we feel the need of turning in humble suppliance to Almighty God for help and guidance.In recognition of this need, the Congress has fittingly provided, in a joint resolution which I approved on May 11, 1950, that Memorial Day, which has long been set aside for paying tribute to those who lost their lives in war, shall henceforth be dedicated also as a day for Nation-wide prayer for permanent peace. The Congress has also requested that the President issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe Memorial Day in that manner.NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, pursuant to the aforementioned resolution, do hereby proclaim Memorial Day, Tuesday, May 30, 1950, and each succeeding Memorial Day, as a day of prayer for permanent peace. And I designate the hour beginning at eleven o'clock in the morning of that day, Eastern Daylight Saving Time, as a period in which all our people may unite in prayer, each in accordance with his own religious faith, for divine aid in bringing enduring peace to a troubled world.I also request the agencies of the press, radio, television, and other media of public information to join in the observance of that day and of the specified hour by announcements and programs designed to unite the Nation in a universal prayer for permanent peace.IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed.DONE at the City of Washington this 22nd day of May in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and fifty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and seventy-fourth. [SEAL]HARRY S. TRUMAN Here is an interesting archival collection of NY Times Memorial Day articles since WWI: 100 Years of Memorial Day Commemorations
Storm Clouds ~ U.S. & China
https://youtu.be/61dGhZPzSxs Australian Associated Press - January 15, 1950 Despite British recognition of the new regime, Communist seizure of U.S. consular property in Beijing prompted the United States to recall all consular officials from China in January 1950. Some background In August 1949 the U.S. Department of State issued the China White Paper, which stated that the United States had stayed out of the Chinese civil war because it neither should nor could have influenced the outcome. In October 1949, after the Nationalists were driven from mainland China, Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Shortly before the proclamation of the new Chinese government, U.S. Ambassador John Leighton Stuart met with Communist leaders to discuss U.S. recognition of the the new regime. Further negotiations faltered when Mao announced his intention to lean towards the side of the Soviet Union. Source: https://history.state.gov/countries/issues/china-us-relations Vyacheslav Molotov Mao Zedong
For the first time, the 1950 U.S. census counted a population in the United States >150 million people. State rankings RankStatePopulation1New York14,830,1922California10,586,2233Pennsylvania10,498,0124Illinois8,712,1765Ohio7,946,6276Texas7,748,0007Michigan6,421,0008New Jersey4,860,0009Massachusetts4,690,00010North Carolina4,060,00011Indiana3,952,00012Missouri3,946,00013Georgia3,451,00014Wisconsin3,449,00015Tennessee3,304,00016Virginia3,262,00017Alabama3,060,00018Minnesota2,995,00019Kentucky2,957,00020Florida2,821,00021Louisiana2,701,00022Iowa2,621,00023Washington2,386,00024Maryland2,376,00025Oklahoma2,193,00026Mississippi2,169,00027South Carolina2,119,00028Connecticut2,007,28029West Virginia2,006,00030Kansas1,915,00031Arkansas1,906,00032Oregon1,532,00033Colorado1,337,00034Nebraska1,324,00035Maine911,000xDistrict of Columbia814,00036Rhode Island779,00037Arizona756,00038Utah696,00039New Mexico687,00040South Dakota652,00041North Dakota616,00042Montana598,00043Idaho592,00044New Hampshire531,000xHawaii491,00045Vermont377,00046Delaware321,00047Wyoming292,00048Nevada162,000xAlaska138,000 City rankings RankCityStatePopulationRegion (2016)01New YorkNew York7,891,957Northeast02ChicagoIllinois3,620,962Midwest03PhiladelphiaPennsylvania2,071,605Northeast04Los AngelesCalifornia1,970,358West05DetroitMichigan1,849,568Midwest06BaltimoreMaryland949,708South07ClevelandOhio914,808Midwest08St. LouisMissouri856,796Midwest09WashingtonDistrict of Columbia802,178South10BostonMassachusetts801,444Northeast11San FranciscoCalifornia775,357West12PittsburghPennsylvania676,806Northeast13MilwaukeeWisconsin637,392Midwest14HoustonTexas596,163South15BuffaloNew York580,132Northeast16New OrleansLouisiana570,445South17MinneapolisMinnesota521,718Midwest18CincinnatiOhio503,998Midwest19SeattleWashington467,591West20Kansas CityMissouri456,622Midwest21NewarkNew Jersey438,776Northeast22DallasTexas434,462South23IndianapolisIndiana427,173Midwest24DenverColorado415,786West25San AntonioTexas408,442South26MemphisTennessee396,000South27OaklandCalifornia384,575West28ColumbusOhio375,901Midwest29PortlandOregon373,628West30LouisvilleKentucky369,129South31San DiegoCalifornia334,387West32RochesterNew York332,488Northeast33AtlantaGeorgia331,314South34BirminghamAlabama326,037South35Saint PaulMinnesota311,349Midwest36ToledoOhio303,616Midwest37Jersey CityNew Jersey299,017Northeast38Fort WorthTexas278,778South39AkronOhio274,605Midwest40OmahaNebraska251,117Midwest41Long BeachCalifornia250,767West42MiamiFlorida249,276South43ProvidenceRhode Island248,674Northeast44DaytonOhio243,872Midwest45Oklahoma CityOklahoma243,504South46RichmondVirginia230,310South47SyracuseNew York220,583Northeast48NorfolkVirginia213,513South49JacksonvilleFlorida204,517South50WorcesterMassachusetts203,486Northeast51TulsaOklahoma182,740South52Salt Lake CityUtah182,121West53Des MoinesIowa177,965Midwest54HartfordConnecticut177,397Northeast55Grand RapidsMichigan176,515Midwest56NashvilleTennessee174,307South57YoungstownOhio168,330Midwest58WichitaKansas168,279Midwest59New HavenConnecticut164,443Northeast60FlintMichigan163,143Midwest61SpringfieldMassachusetts162,399Northeast62SpokaneWashington161,721West63BridgeportConnecticut158,709Northeast64YonkersNew York152,798Northeast65TacomaWashington143,673West66PatersonNew Jersey139,336Northeast67SacramentoCalifornia137,572West68ArlingtonVirginia135,449South69AlbanyNew York134,995Northeast70CharlotteNorth Carolina134,042South71GaryIndiana133,911Midwest72Fort WayneIndiana133,607Midwest73AustinTexas132,459South74ChattanoogaTennessee131,041South75EriePennsylvania130,803Northeast76El PasoTexas130,485South77Kansas CityKansas129,553Midwest78MobileAlabama129,009South79EvansvilleIndiana128,636Midwest80TrentonNew Jersey128,009Northeast81ShreveportLouisiana127,206South82Baton RougeLouisiana125,629South83ScrantonPennsylvania125,536Northeast84KnoxvilleTennessee124,769South85TampaFlorida124,681South86CamdenNew Jersey124,555Northeast87CambridgeMassachusetts120,740Northeast88SavannahGeorgia119,638South89CantonOhio116,912Midwest90South BendIndiana115,911Midwest91BerkeleyCalifornia113,805West92ElizabethNew Jersey112,817Northeast93Fall RiverMassachusetts111,963Northeast94PeoriaIllinois111,856Midwest95WilmingtonDelaware110,356South96ReadingPennsylvania109,320Northeast97New BedfordMassachusetts109,189Northeast98Corpus ChristiTexas108,287South99PhoenixArizona106,818West100AllentownPennsylvania106,756Northeast
R.I.P. Doris Day
https://youtu.be/D0MtzQDltr0 Doris Day, the freckle-faced movie actress whose irrepressible personality and golden voice made her America’s top box-office star in the early 1960s, died on Monday at her home in Carmel Valley, Calif. She was 97. ~ NY Times May 13, 2019 Film appearances YearTitleRoleNotes1948Romance on the High SeasGeorgia GarrettHer feature film debut. Co-starring Jack Carson. Song "It's Magic" nominated for an Oscar.1949My Dream Is YoursMartha GibsonCo-starring Jack Carson.It's a Great FeelingJudy AdamsCo-starring Jack Carson and Dennis Morgan; with Errol Flynn, Joan Crawford, Edward G. Robinson, Sydney Greenstreet, Gary Cooper, Jane Wyman, Patricia Neal, Danny Kaye, Eleanor Parker.1950Young Man with a HornJo JordanHer first dramatic role. Co-starring Kirk Douglas and Lauren Bacall.Tea for TwoNanette CarterCo-starring Gordon MacRae. Adaptation of Broadway musical No, No, NanetteThe West Point StoryJan WilsonCo-starring James Cagney1951Storm WarningLucy RiceCo-starring Ronald Reagan, Ginger Rogers and Steve CochranLullaby of BroadwayMelinda HowardCo-starring Gene NelsonOn Moonlight BayMarjorie "Marjie" WinfieldCo-starring Gordon MacRaeBased on the Penrod stories by Booth Tarkington.I'll See You in My DreamsGrace LeBoy KahnCo-starring Danny ThomasStarliftHerselfHer name appeared first in the on-screen credits.1952The Winning TeamAimee AlexanderCo-starring Ronald ReaganApril in ParisEthel "Dynamite" JacksonCo-starring Ray Bolger1953By the Light of theSilvery MoonMarjorie "Marjie" WinfieldCo-starring Gordon MacRaeA sequel to On Moonlight Bay.Calamity JaneCalamity JaneCo-starring Howard Keel Introduced Academy Award-winning song Secret Love1954Lucky MeCandy WilliamsCo-starring Robert Cummings and Phil Silvers1955Young at HeartLaurie TuttleCo-starring Frank SinatraLove Me or Leave MeRuth EttingCo-starring James Cagney1956The Man Who Knew Too MuchJosephine Conway "Jo" McKennaCo-starring James Stewart. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock.Introduced Academy Award-winning song Que Sera, SeraJulieJulie BentonThriller co-starring Louis Jourdan1957The Pajama GameKatherine "Babe" WilliamsCo-starring John Raitt. Adaptation of Broadway musical1958Teacher’s PetErica StoneCo-starring Clark GableThe Tunnel of LoveIsolde PooleCo-starring Richard Widmark Golden Globe and Laurel nominations for Golden Globe Award for Best Female Performance - Musical or Comedy|Best Motion Picture Actress - Comedy/Musical1959It Happened to JaneJane OsgoodCo-starring Jack Lemmon and Ernie KovacsPillow TalkJan MorrowHer first film with Rock Hudson Academy Award-nominated for Best Actress.Golden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy. Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1960Please Don't Eat the DaisiesKate Robinson MackayCo-starring David NivenMidnight LaceKit PrestonThriller co-starring Rex HarrisonGolden Globe and Laurel Award nominations for Best Motion Picture Actress - Drama1961Lover Come BackCarol TempletonHer second film with Rock Hudson. Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1962That Touch of MinkCathy TimberlakeCo-starring Cary Grant. Won Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.Billy Rose's JumboKitty WonderAdaptation of Broadway musicalGolden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy1963The Thrill of It AllBeverly BoyerCo-starring James GarnerMove Over, DarlingEllen Wagstaff ArdenCo-starring James Garner. Remake of My Favorite Wife (1940).Initiated as Marilyn Monroe's unfinished film Something's Got to Give.Golden Globe Award-nominated for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical/Comedy1964Send Me No FlowersJudy KimballHer third and last film with Rock Hudson. Won the Laurel Award for best female comedy performance.1965Do Not DisturbJanet HarperCo-starring Rod Taylor1966The Glass Bottom BoatJennifer NelsonCo-starring Rod Taylor. Nominated for Laurel Award, best female comedy performance.1967CapricePatricia FosterCo-starring Richard HarrisThe Ballad of JosieJosie MinickCo-starring Peter Graves and George Kennedy1968Where Were You Whenthe Lights Went Out?Margaret GarrisonLaurel Award nomination for best female comedy performance.With Six You Get EggrollAbby McClureCo-starring Brian Keith; her last film. Laurel Award nomination for best female comedy performance. Discography 10" LPs You're My Thrill (1949) Tea for Two (1950) (soundtrack) Young Man with a Horn (1950) (w/Harry James) (soundtrack) Lullaby Of Broadway (1951) (soundtrack) On Moonlight Bay (1951) (soundtrack) I'll See You in My Dreams (1951) (soundtrack) By the Light of the Silvery Moon (1953) (soundtrack) Calamity Jane(1953) (soundtrack)The Deadwood StageSecret LoveJust Blew in From The Windy CityThe Black Hills Of DakotaA Woman's touchI can do without youHigher than a Hawk (Deeper than a well)Tis Harry I'm plannin' to marry Young at Heart (1954) (soundtrack) (w/Frank Sinatra)Till My...
What’s My Line
What's My Line? was a game show on the CBS Television Network from 1950 to 1967. Blindfolded celebrity panelists questioned a weekly "mystery guest" to determine his/her employment. Moderated by John Charles Daly, regular panelists included Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, and Bennett Cerf. What's My Line? was the longest-running primetime network television game-show in America. The show won Emmy Awards for "Best Quiz or Audience Participation Show" in 1952, 1953, and 1958 and the Golden Globe for Best TV Show in 1962.Ref: Wikipedia
Speech of Joseph McCarthy, Wheeling, West Virginia, February 9, 1950 ...The reason why we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because our only powerful potential enemy has sent men to invade our shores . . . but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have been treated so well by this Nation. It has not been the less fortunate, or members of minority groups who have been traitorous to this Nation, but rather those who have had all the benefits that the wealthiest Nation on earth has had to offer . . . the finest homes, the finest college education and the finest jobs in government we can give. This is glaringly true in the State Department. There the bright young men who are born with silver spoons in their mouths are the ones who have been most traitorous. . . . I have here in my hand a list of 205 . . . a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department. . . .
Korean War Vets Memorial
I just visited the American war memorials in Washington D.C. All evoke powerful emotions. The Korean War Veterans Memorial is located near the Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It was dedicated on July 27, 1995. The Memorial was designed and financed by private contributions and erected under the auspices of the Korean War Veterans Memorial Advisory Board . Source: The Memorial - Korean War Vets Memorial I am currently researching the events surrounding the Korean War for my next historical fiction novel regarding the time of that conflict.
The Broad High Road
https://youtu.be/yYyq__nwrA4 At the end of WWII, with a Conservative Party defeat in the 1945 general election, Winston Churchill became leader of the British opposition. Midst the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, Churchill warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. https://youtu.be/CTzdeT1lMyM Here is an excerpt from his famous speech of June 1940 after the fall of France and the Dunkirk evacuation. https://youtu.be/MkTw3_PmKtc
Republic of India
In 1947 India became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The eastern and northwest parts of colonial British India were partitioned into the Dominion of Pakistan with the transfer of ~10 million people and the tragic deaths of ~one million people. With the 1950 constitution, the Republic of India became a fully-independent democracy with Jawaharlal Nehru as its first Prime Minister. https://youtu.be/rpKG5ZB5eLI
The Great Brinks Robbery
The great Brinks robbery In January 1950 eleven men pulled off the greatest robbery up to that time at the Brinks Armed Car depot in Boston Massachusetts. Vanishing after stealing $2.7 million, the masked men left few clues (a chauffeur’s cap and adhesive tape and rope used to bind and gag Brinks employees). The gang was not caught until six years later (just before the statute of limitations would have been in effect).
People’s Republic of China
Song of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA) Forward! Forward! Forward!Our army faces towards the sun,Over the ground of our Motherland,Carrying the hope of our nation, We are an invincible power!We are the sons of peasantry,We are the arms of the people! Always fearless, never yielding, heroically fight, 'till we exterminate all counter-revolutionaries Mao Zedong's flag is fluttering high! Hark! The wind is roaring and the bugle is sounding;Hark! How thunderously our revolutionary song is ringing! Comrades, march forth in unity onto the frontiersof liberation and the borders of our Nation!. Forward! Forward!Our army faces towards the Sun;Towards the final victory;And the freedom of all our land! After almost 20 years of intermittent civil war, interrupted by cautious military cooperation against colonial Japan, the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in October 1949. By the end of January 1950, the last Nationalist Chinese Kuomintang troops surrendered in mainland China as the Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan with two million people, including military forces and refugees.
America in 1950
I have begun collecting images for my next book about the Korean War. (I'm jumping my own timeline here - we'll get back to 1946 with the next post) Check out my PINTEREST board ~ America in 1950 Any corrections (sometimes it's hard to pinpoint 1950 exactly since most search engines want "the 50s") or suggestions for additional items would be most welcome.