28 Imperial Japanese military and government leaders were charged with Class A war crimes – participating in a joint conspiracy to start and wage war. Additionally, ~ 5,700 subordinate personnel were charged with conventional war crimes in separate trials convened by Australia, China, France, The Netherlands, the Philippines, the United Kingdom and the USA.
The charges included abuse of prisoners, rape, forced prostitution, torture, ill-treatment of laborers, summary executions without trial and inhumane medical experiments.
To ensure a smooth occupation and various reforms in Japan, neither Emperor Hirohito nor any members of his family were charged with war crimes.
25 high-ranking officials completed the Tokyo Trials. Additionally, two died during the trial and a third defendant was declared mentally unfit to stand trial. All defendants were found guilty.
The sentences were death by hanging for Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, Foreign Minister Koki Hirota and five generals (Kenji Doihara, Seishiro Itagaki, Hyoturo Kimura, Iwane Matsui and Akira Muto). Sixteen others received life sentences. Past foreign ministers, Shigenori Togo and Mamoru Shigemitsu were sentenced to several years imprisonment. Togo died in prison; but Shigemitsu later served as Japan’s foreign minister.