Truman Doctrine 

The purpose of the Truman Doctrine delineated in 1947 was to counter geopolitical expansion of the Soviet Union. Initially, in place of direct military action, the U.S. Congress appropriated financial aid to support the economies and militaries of Greece and Turkey....

read more

Fulbright Scholarship

Aug 1, 1946  President Truman signed the Fulbright Program into law, establishing the scholarships named for Arkansas Sen. William J. Fulbright.   After WWII, Senator J. William Fulbright proposed that the U.S. government sell surplus war property to fund an...

read more

Understanding Korea

Ancient Korea Gojoseon, Korea's legendary first kingdom, was founded in 2333 B.C.E. After its collapse, several small kingdoms coalesced into the Three Kingdoms Period (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla) around the year zero C.E. Gradually assuming power, Silla consolidated...

read more

Yalta Conference

  In February 1945, the "Big Three" President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin met at Yalta in the Crimea to: demand the unconditional surrender of Germany discuss the security and self-determination of liberated...

read more

United Nations WWII

  A lot of people seem surprised to hear that the term "United Nations," coined by FDR, was used during WWII. President Franklin Roosevelt first coined the term "United Nations" to describe the Allied countries in WWII.  On New Year's Day 1942, FDR, Prime Minister...

read more

Casablanca Conference

In January 1943, two months after the Anglo-American landings in French North Africa in November 1942, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met in Casablanca, Morocco. Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, engaged in the decisive...

read more

INFERNO

I am currently reading this excellent book by Max Hastings. Not only is it detailed, balanced and well-referenced; it is superb writing. Before dawn next morning, "a warm, damp, rather hazy day," American and Japanese pilots breakfasted. The Yorktown's men favoured...

read more

The Light of Asia

At war, Japan required large amounts of petroleum, scrap iron, and other raw materials. While 55 percent of its oil came from the USA, Indonesia supplied 25%. After the German occupation of Holland, Japan demanded vital natural resources, especially oil from the...

read more

World At War

This fascinating propaganda film by the Office of War Information was apparently finished just before the Battle of Midway in June 1942. It was a time when the Allies were losing all across the globe. The film is 43 min. -  bit long for this blog, but quite worth it...

read more

Mexico Declares War

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=afrOsaJCGm4 In the decade before WWII, Mexico was chaotic and unstable. The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) which caused widespread destruction and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives was followed by several violent uprisings against...

read more

Will Japan Abandon Pacifism?

At the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland last week,  Japan's prime minister Shinzo Abe compared recent tensions between China and Japan to the rivalry between the British and German empires at the start of the 20th century. A conservative nationalist, Abe has...

read more

FDR Appeals to Hirohito

  December 6, 1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt sent a personal message to Emperor Hirohito urging him to use his influence to preserve the...

read more

Diplomacy Fails

    November 2- Japanese ambassador Admiral Nomura and special envoy Saburo Kurusu propose that the U.S. unfreeze Japanese credits, reopen trade relations, assist Japan in the exploitation of resources in the Dutch East Indies, halt American military build-up in the...

read more

American Ambassador’s Warning

  On November 17 , 1941  American Ambassador to Japan Joseph Grew cabled Secretary Hull and Under Secretary Welles as follows: "In emphasizing need for guarding against sudden military or naval actions by Japan in areas not at present involved in the China conflict, I...

read more

U.S.-Mexican Relations

  In the months leading up to American involvement in WWII, strained relations with Mexico were under repair. In November 1941 Mexican President Avila Camacho and FDR  reached an agreement in which Mexico agreed to settle American agrarian claims in return for U.S....

read more

Charles Lindbergh – America First

In 1941, Charles Lindbergh was the America First Committee's leading spokesman against  American involvement in the European conflict.  He maintained that FDR,  along with British and...

read more

Atlantic Charter

In August 1941, Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt met on a ship off Newfoundland and agreed on a plan for large-scale assistance to the USSR. They also drafted the Atlantic Charter which stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement...

read more

Japan Urges Summit Meeting With USA

In August 1941, Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe  sent a message to President Franklin Roosevelt that emphasized the importance of a summit meeting between the two countries’ leaders.

read more

U.S. Warns Japanese

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Kichisaburō Nomura In August 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt warned Admiral Nomura, the Japanese ambassador to the United States, that the U.S. would be forced to take immediate action to safeguard American rights and interests in the Far...

read more

Japanese Assets in the USA Frozen

Viewing the Japanese move into southern Indochina, as an overt and flagrant act of aggression, FDR issued an executive order on July 26,1941 that froze all Japanese assets in the United States. The order, which placed all import and export transactions with Japanese...

read more

Japan Stays Out of German-Soviet War

Shortly after concluding a neutrality pact with the USSR, Japan's Foreign Minister, Matsuoka Yosuke had ignored German hints about their upcoming Barbarosa offensive. In a meeting with his cabinet,  he proposed that Japan now join the Germans in their attack on the...

read more

U.S. Closes German Consulates

The Roosevelt administration ordered the closure of German consulates across the United States. Three days later, the German and Italian governments closed American consulates in Axis-controlled areas of Europe in...

read more

Treaty of Tokyo

From 1940-1941, Vichy France  and Thailand fought to control certain areas of French Indochina that had once belonged to Thailand. On May 9, with Japanese mediation, a peace treaty was signed in Tokyo that forced Vichy France to relinquish disputed border territories....

read more

Japan Proposes “Commercial Understanding” with U.S.

In February 1941, a Japanese proposal for a "commercial understanding" with the United States, asserting Japanese dominance over the Dutch East Indies was flatly rejected by FDR. The U.S. State Department warned Japan that the U.S. had guaranteed the freedom of the...

read more

Comments, contributions, corrections, and suggestions are always welcome:

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *