The German V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2–“Retribution Weapon 2”) was Mankind’s first long-range guided ballistic missile. Powered by a liquid-propellant rocket engine, more than 3000 V-2 rockets were launched against Allied cities in 1944.

The initial V-2 target was London;  later, Antwerp and Liège were attacked. ~ 9,000 civilians and military personnel were killed in the V-2 attacks. Additionally, 12,000 forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners died during weapon production.